The 7 billion dollar French bank robbery and the Bin Laden Trades

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The 7 billion dollar French bank robbery and the Bin Laden Trades

Kerviel could have been the fall guy

Another submarine telecom cable severed

2-17-08: Iranian Oil Bourse opens today

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    Part 4 of the Bin Laden Trades.

    See Part 1

    See Part 2

    See Part 3

    Canada Free Press, 9-4-07

    www.canadafreepress.com/2007/business090407.htm

    ``9/11, bin Laden trades

    MASSIVE WALL STREET PUT OPTIONS SIGNAL UPCOMING TERROR ATTACK

    $4.5 billion options bet on catastrophe within four weeks

    The two sales are being referred to by market traders as "bin Laden trades" because only an event on the scale of 9-11 could make these short-sell options valuable.

    There are 65,000 contracts @ $750.00 for the SPX 700 calls for open interest. That controls 6.5 million shares at $750 = $4.5 Billion ...

    The entity or individual offering these sales can only make money if the market drops 30%-50% within the next four weeks. If the market does not drop, the entity or individual involved stands to lose over $1 billion just for engaging in these contracts! Clearly, someone knows something big is going to happen BEFORE the options expire on Sept. 21 [2007] ...''

    Commentator 1 on 9-23-07:

    ``I see no evidence for a "box trade"; just as there was none on 9-11-01. The gangsters took a real hit, and we should thank the courageous whistle blowers at Minot and Barksdale. But we should not forget that the Oil Gang is still running the show. To avoid tragic exposure to war in the Middle East and Central Asia [a Kondratieff peak war, 'the Kazakh War of 2020'], we should do everything we can to get off oil -- drive plugin hybrids, promote oilgae, methanol, and commuter rail, etc.''

    Top -- Home

    Date: Sat, 26 Jan 2008

    Commentator 2 wrote:

    ``Subject: The 7 billion dollar French bank robbery

    The money is probably now safely deposited in Dubai via Senegal. The scheme time line would take at least 2 years to posture the setup and wait for the exact time to execute. Everything reported points to a masterpiece of crime.''

    Commentator 3 wrote:

    ``Nah - that money had already been lost months ago! and this was just the final chapter made public.

    This whole episode is a drama intended to throw-off the bloodhounds with a little "misdirection". Despite the irreproachable source of [this] version of the conspiracy theory, methinks that it goes much deeper and back in time a few months ... and, of course, the poor lad accused of all the bad trades is little more than a scapegoat. He will turn-up soon, likely the victim of an apparent "suicide" with a convincing mea culpa note pinned to his coat..

    Scapegoat for whom, you ask?

    Well it is a bit surprising that none of the Blogs I visited this morning to get briefed on the SocGen fiasco have yet to pick up on the connection to the Bin Laden Trades.

    How quickly they forget ...

    The option trades had almost gone unnoticed in Europe - but were an almost identical set of seemingly ill-advised option trades, made prior to the 9-11 anniversary, as happened on the Chicago options market, and been noticed by bloggers ... back then.

    Makes one think that someone with nefarious intentions, and with that much "credit" was convinced that the Arabs had a 9-11 sequel in mind for us back in September. Or else that it was a "false-flag" operation which was caught ahead of time. As in ... err... did we ever find out what happened to the missing cruise missile nuke in Louisiana???

    Surprise, surprise. Three months later, after an anonymous investor had placed a massive bet on an index of Europe's top 50 stocks falling by a third by the end of September, what happens? That investor took a $7 billion (US) loss then, and it was the apparent "end-of story."... Oops...

    Now the perpetrator has likely been found... err... make that, been "scapegoated."

    To refresh your memory, that mystery investor of last fall quietly bought option contracts on the Eurostoxx 50 index that would result in massive profit only if it plunged below 2,800 (from 4,100) by the end of September [2007]. It did not, and almost $5bn Euros was lost back then ... which, coincidentally or uncoincidentally, is only slightly less than the recent SocGen [loss] announcment. The Bank Board probably threw in a few other ill-adviced misdeeds into the mix, as well.

    The real identity of the investor back then remains unknown to all but a few, and they aint talkin' shall we say... but the broker was the same A.B. Brown (Alex Brown) of 9/11 infamy.

    This is the investment arm of Deutsche Bank, which is the giant European Bank favored by the Saudis and the BinLaden family. The cross-connection of the French Bank to Deutsche is not yet known, but Google and I are digging into that, as we speak.

    Until 1998 Deutsche was headed by the man who became the Executive Director of CIA -- A.B. 'Buzzy' Krongard.

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._B._Krongard

    In fact, Krongard is but one American name in a long history of CIA/European connections and involvement with shady Banking ...

    It is almost a tradition to do one's "dirty laundry" in a nice place like Paris. The bureaucracy there is so slow to react that getting caught is low probability. And it is most pleasant for spooks to be able to enjoy fine cuisine while conspiring to perpetuate their NWO [New World Order] ideals.''

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    Date: Sat, 27 Oct 2007 21:06:06 -0400

    Commentator 4 wrote:

    Subject: Loose Nukes -- in case anyone's still interested

    ``Interesting article, with a possible explanation for the "impossible" missing nukes:

    www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=6909

    Capsule summary: The nukes were intended for Iran, and the plane was supposed to head off to war. But there is a lot of reluctance in the upper echelons of the military to take the (arguably insane) step of nuking Iran, and instead of going according to plan, the whole thing blew up in the government's face, derailed by folks who decided to blow the whistle rather than march over a cliff on Cheney's orders ...''

    NEWS ARTICLE from Global Research, 9-24-07, by Wayne Madsen

    ``Air Force refused to fly weapons to Middle East theater

    WMR has learned from U.S. and foreign intelligence sources that the B-52 transporting six stealth AGM-129 Advanced Cruise Missiles, each armed with a W-80-1 nuclear warhead, on August 30, [2007] were destined for the Middle East via Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana.

    However, elements of the Air Force, supported by U.S. intelligence agency personnel, successfully revealed the ultimate destination of the nuclear weapons and the mission was aborted due to internal opposition within the Air Force and U.S. Intelligence Community ...

    Just as this report was being prepared, Newsweek reported that Vice President Dick Cheney's recently-departed Middle East adviser, David Wurmser, told a small group of advisers some months ago that Cheney had considered asking Israel to launch a missile attack on the Iranian nuclear site at Natanz. Cheney reasoned that after an Iranian retaliatory strike, the United States would have ample reasons to launch its own massive attack on Iran.

    However, plans for Israel to attack Iran directly were altered to an Israeli attack on a supposed Syrian-Iranian-North Korean nuclear installation in northern Syria.

    WMR has learned that a U.S. attack on Iran using nuclear and conventional weapons was scheduled to coincide with Israel's September 6 [2007] air attack on a reputed Syrian nuclear facility in Dayr az-Zwar, near the village of Tal Abyad, in northern Syria, near the Turkish border.

    Israel's attack, code named OPERATION ORCHARD, was to provide a reason for the U.S. to strike Iran. The neo-conservative propaganda onslaught was to cite the cooperation of the George Bush's three remaining "Axis of Evil" states -- Syria, Iran, and North Korea -- to justify a sustained Israeli attack on Syria and a massive U.S. military attack on Iran ...

    WMR has learned from military sources on both sides of the Atlantic that there was a definite connection ... involving the B-52 that flew the six nuclear-armed cruise missiles from Minot Air Force Base in North Dakota to Barksdale.

    There is also a connection between these two events as the Pentagon's highly-classified PROJECT CHECKMATE, a compartmented U.S. Air Force program that has been working on an attack plan for Iran since June 2007, around the same time that Cheney was working on the joint Israeli-U.S. attack scenario on Iran.

    PROJECT CHECKMATE was leaked in an article by military analyst Eric Margolis in the Rupert Murdoch-owned newspaper, the "Times of London", is a program that involves over two dozen Air Force officers ...

    British intelligence sources have reported that the Israeli attack on Syria was a "true flag" attack originally designed to foreshadow a U.S. attack on Iran.

    After the U.S. Air Force push back against transporting the six cruise nuclear-armed AGM-129s to the Middle East, Israel went ahead with its attack on Syria in order to help ratchet up tensions between Washington on one side and Damascus, Tehran, and Pyongyang on the other ...''

    [For more on how the CIA makes money on Wall Street, see www.amazon.com/ -- "Crossing the Rubicon: The Decline of the American Empire at the End of the Age of Oil," by Michael C. Ruppert

    On the web see www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/index.shtml]

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    Commentator 5 wrote on 1-28-08:

    ``Some problems have no solution. That is not the issue. It's the attempt to solve a problem that is important. Finding a substitute for oil, for example, may not impact the climate much but it will have many other benefits ...''

    Commentator 1 wrote:

    ``It is critical that we get off oil no matter where it comes from. For Americans, this is the issue of highest national security. As the world oil glut tips the price of oil into a precipitous drop, the chance is better than 50% that Bush will attack the Iranian oil fields before November, 2008, to reduce supply, even at the risk of closing the Straits of Hormuz.''

    Commentator 3 wrote on 1-28-08:

    ``[Jerome] Kerviel is the so-called "rogue" trader (or scapegoat) who is taking the heat for the recent French banking scandal ... which is becoming a story with many far-reaching tentacles- there are whispers of Halliburton, a secret CIA-Clique (reminiscent of the Star Chamber), the Bin-Laden option trades, secret infiltration of the European banking system by ArAms, and it all may eventually get back to our beloved (and aptly-named) "Vice" President.

    Keep you eye on this site for upcoming salacious details:

    www.halliburtonwatch.org/

    BTW an "ArAm" is short for ArabAmerican, which is more an earned distinction, based on avarice ... more than anything racial or ethnic. It comes from the former 'suits' of this outfit, which is now the largest corporation in the World, Exxon notwithstanding:

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aramco

    They (ArAms in general and Aramco in particular) actually have far more net wealth than the entire United States of America ... which recently, under the watchful anti-terrorist-eyes of the Bush Administration, has sunk to become a net-debtor nation. (no exaggeration)''

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    www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSL2871897420080128

    NEWS ARTICLE from Reuters, 1-28-08, By Tom Miles

    [Kerviel could have been the fall guy]

    ``HONG KONG (Reuters) - Incredulous equity traders said on Monday [1-28-08] they wanted a better explanation from Societe Generale for how a single rogue trader managed to build up a $73 billion position and cause the French bank to lose $7 billion.

    "I think most people are just astonished that someone could get away with that kind of trade for so long without being noticed," said Matt McKeith, head of equity dealing at First State Investments in Hong Kong ...

    McKeith speculated Kerviel ... could have been the fall guy for something systematic in the bank. I think more is going to come out. Perhaps he's been hung out to dry. Perhaps they were legitimate positions."

    A trader at a foreign bank in Seoul, who was not authorized to speak to the media about the matter, agreed.

    "It's just mysterious. It's unbelievable that this could happen and I want to know how. Even a very small deal cannot go undetected for more than two days if it was not reconciled. It's not a matter of one trader's methods," said the trader.''

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    www.reuters.com/article/ousiv/idUSL2422020620080129

    NEWS ARTICLE from Reuters, 1-29-08, By Andrew Hurst and Tim Hepher

    ``France warns SocGen predators

    PARIS (Reuters) - France warned foreign banks on Tuesday [1-29-08] not to try to grab control of Societe Generale as it reels from losses blamed on a rogue trader, but shares in the bank spiked higher on takeover speculation.

    "The government is determined that Societe Generale remains a great French bank," Prime Minister Francois Fillon told parliament ...

    SocGen said on January 24 [2008] it had uncovered massive unauthorized stock trading by one of its employees that led to 4.9 billion euros ($7.2 billion) of losses, the world's biggest rogue trading scandal.

    Jerome Kerviel, a 31-year old junior trader, was placed under investigation for breach of trust and other misdeeds on Monday, but judges threw out the stronger accusation of fraud made by the bank and prosecutors freed him on bail.''

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    www.telegraph.co.uk/money/main.jhtml?xml=/money/2008/01/29/bcnkerviel129.xml

    NEWS ARTICLE from The Telegrpah (London), 1-29-08, By Henry Samuel and Nick Allen in Paris

    ``Jérôme Kerviel: Bank knew what I was doing

    The French "rogue trader" accused of the biggest banking fraud in history has claimed that he was being made a scapegoat by his employers who had "tolerated" his risky deals as long as they made money.

    Jérôme Kerviel, 31, has been placed under official investigation but allowed to walk free [he might be safer in jail] on condition he remained in the country. He faces multiple charges of forgery, computer hacking and breach of trust, but the charge of attempted fraud was not pressed ...''

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    www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/jan/27/europeanbanks.marketturmoil

    ARTICLE from The Guardian, 1-27-08, by Jason Burke and Alex Duval Smith

    ``French Rally Behind Rogue Trader

    ``... Jerome Kerviel, the 31-year-old trader whose fraudulent stock market transactions last week cost his employer, Societe Generale, £3.7 billion ($7.4 billion), was Saturday [1-26-08] in a Paris police station after being taken into custody around 2 p.m. by French financial police, who drove him, hidden in the back of a Renault, past journalists and photographers waiting at the gates ...

    Lawyers for Kerviel said Saturday that their client was "entirely prepared to co-operate with the authorities."

    France has been polarized by the unlikely figure of the taciturn, clean-cut man behind the biggest "rogue trader" scandal of all time. Some 300 miles west of Paris, in his home village of Pont l'Abbe on the Brittany peninsula, Kerviel is a hero - particularly with the ladies in the hair salon his mother used to own ...

    Maryvonne Even, 40, said Kerviel was a scapegoat. "He was probably caught fiddling - a bit - and the bosses decided to blame him for all their losses," she said.

    This is not just local Breton solidarity. In France, where there is profound popular distrust for big finance, strong opposition to "international capitalism" and a belief in the "French model" as opposed to "savage Anglo-Saxon liberalism", the views of the ladies in Pont l'Abbe are widespread.

    For Isabelle Mercier, 44, queuing outside a Societe Generale branch in Paris, the "rich and the powerful" always find someone to blame: "Anyone who is a threat to them is eliminated one way or another." Mohammed Benali, a market trader at the nearby Marche d'Aligre, agreed. "It is time the bosses and the rich were taken down a peg," he said ...

    The crisis broke nine days ago, on a Friday evening [1-18-08]. Kerviel had already left the La Defense offices of the bank for his modest flat in the upmarket western Parisian suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine when he was called on his mobile phone. An anomaly in one of his trades had been discovered ...''

    The bank has been criticized for not sitting out the turmoil and quietly unwinding the trades once markets recovered. But it's unlikely SocGen could have kept the fraud secret for long. If the losses had become public before the positions were closed, SocGen would have risked a run similar to that which paralyzed Northern Rock.''

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    11amdesign.com/wordpress/?p=285

    BLOG ARTICLE from 11amDesign.com, 1-25-08

    [Crash by March 21, 2008]

    ``The Federal Reserve's biggest emergency interest rate cut in more than two decades is sparking debate as to why they slashed interest rates by 0.75 percentage point, the first cut between regularly scheduled meetings since September 2001 ...

    High volume selling of tainted investments by Societe Generale may have sparked this week's emergency rate cut by the US Fed, according to a report, but others are reporting something even bigger.

    Billions of put option contracts are betting that the stock market will crash by March 21, [2008] signaled by the rouge put option trades on the NASDAQ-100 index through the Power Share (QQQQ) contracts.

    Currently, the March `out of the money' put contacts (645,250) outweigh the March `in the money' call contacts (85,907) by 559,343 contacts, signaling a huge imbalance which is estimated to crash the NASDAQ market by 30% to 40% from it current level. What we're looking at is roughly 3 BILLION DOLLARS of put option contacts putting pressure on the market.

    This is not the only put option contracts with huge imbalances. The entity or individual offering these sales can only make most of this money if the market drops 30%-40% within the next 8 weeks. If the market does not drop, the entity or individual involved stands to lose over $3 billion just for engaging in these contracts!

    Clearly, someone knows something big is going to happen BEFORE the options expire on March, 21 [2008] ...''

    Commentator 3 wrote:

    ``Apparently, even though the "Bin Laden" option trades went flat 6 months ago, that huge (paper) loss did not deter a planned second-chance effort to recoup the initial loss, and create havoc in the Western economies.

    From 11amdesign.com/wordpress/?p=285

    ``The Federal Reserve's biggest emergency interest rate cut in more than two decades is sparking debate as to why they slashed interest rates by 0.75 percentage point, the first cut between regularly scheduled meetings since September 2001 ..."

    Possible Rationale (still trying to verify the details below):

    Well, following hot on the footsteps of the SocGen announcement is the newly discovered warning -- from other sources than SocGen -- that a massive level of put option contracts had been placed recently. This time it was done differently than last Fall, so as to avoid early detection, as happened 6 months ago.

    These options are betting that the US stock markets will crash by March 21, [2008]. Reportedly, these are not NYSE but instead NASDAQ-100 index options placed through (QQQQ) contracts. However, crashing the smaller exchange would likely have a domino effect on the NYSE.

    This seems to be, for all purposes, somewhat of a renewed continuation of the so-called 'Bin Laden' trades of last Fall ...

    However, apparently the Fed/SEC is wise to this scheme, and will step in again if necessary. (we hope) ...

    Currently, the March [21, 2008] (out of the money) put contacts (100 shares each) is 645,250 and outweigh the March (in the money) call contacts by 559,343 contacts, well over half a million contract or 56 billion shares worth ... signaling a huge imbalance, which was estimated to be able to crash the NASDAQ market by 30% to 40% from it current level, unless a deep-pocket rescue effort steps-in fist. How many of these came through SocGen is not known.

    This may very well represent (possibly) part of an expected profit that the Kerviel conspiracy would have reaped, had not they not been caught ahead of time. The havoc that followed would be difficult to estimate.

    This story is far from over, and until March 21, [2008] when these put options expire, the economies of the USA and Europe are still at great risk.

    The good news is that if the US SEC decides to meet the risk head-on, [the gangsters could again take a big hit] ...''

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    Commentator 3 wrote on 2-3-08:

    ``Another submarine telecom cable in the Middle East has been severed, adding to global net problems caused by breaks in two lines under the Mediterranean two days earlier. The mundane explanation of "anchors" has been ruled out now. This is now looking intentional.

    It could merely be three aligned random problems and not evidence of a conspiracy, yet the close timing is suspicious... but of what?

    The Falcon cable is off Dubai, and owned by the Indian firm Reliance, which also owned one of the other cables ...''

    Commentator 6 wrote:

    ``According to Michael Mandeville, neither Israel nor Iraq were affected, but Iran was totally knocked out. Now if you were going to launch a sneak attack on Iran, and didn't really want the rest of the World to know about it till the dust had settled, what would you do?''

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    www.menafn.com/qn_news_story_s.asp?StoryId=1093185900

    NEWS ARTICLE from The Middle East North Africa Financial Network (MENAFN), 2-18-08

    ``Iran launches oil exchange

    JORDAN (MENAFN) -- The Iranian Oil minister announced the launch of an oil exchange with the first trade made [on Sunday, 2-17-08] in a petrochemical product, based on the Gulf economic free zone island of Kish, Reuters reported ...''

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    Commentator 1 on 2-17-08:

    ``As of the opening of the Iranian Oil Bourse today, selling oil for euros, not dollars, I think the chance of an American attack on the Iranian oil fields has never been greater.''

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    www.business-standard.com/common/news_article.php?leftnm=lmnu9&subLeft=2&autono=312626&tab=r

    NEWS ARTICLE from The Business Standard, 2-5-08,

    ``4th cable snaps, Qatar-UAE traffic disrupted

    by Rajesh S Kurup & Leslie D'Monte / Mumbai

    In less than a week's time, a fourth submarine cable was severed in West Asia, disrupting voice and telecommunication traffic between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    Even though sources attributed the disruption on Sunday night to power outage and not a ship's anchor that affected the earlier two Mediterranean cables (FLAG Telecom's FLAG Europe-Asia cable and SeaMeWe-4), thousands of bloggers across the world are attributing this to a possible sabotage in the Mediterranean Sea in a bid to isolate Iran.

    Cutting these cables might affect Iran's ability to defend itself since communication is of vital importance during military action, they allege.

    The fourth submarine cable was damaged between Haloul (Qatar) and Das (the UAE). Egypt's ministry of maritime transportation, after reviewing the satellite pictures, said there were no ships (which led to the speculation and allegations) near the cable channel 12 hours before or after the damage near Alexandria, Egypt.

    "...to have three undersea cables, or is it actually four cables?, cut in the same region in just a two-day span, strains credulity; the more so, when we look at how the damage has played out across the region... communication cable cutting in West Asia leaves Israel and Iraq still connected, while completely shutting down the Iranian internet. Funny how that works, isn't it?" asks a professor on his site.

    "Seriously, is there anyone who doesn't think this is either a precursor to military action, or a direct attack on Iran's about-to-launch Euro-based oil market?" asks another blogger.

    "Iran is back online, but its traffic is now passing through the UK and the US, the latter controlling the 13 primary routers. Can you say wiretap?" queries another.

    Others recall spy stories of the US Navy sending out special operations teams to go out on submarines and deploy undersea operations, on the seabed itself, specifically for cutting or tapping communication cables with special airlocks and very sophisticated equipment, much of it thoroughly documented in Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage by Sherry Sontag and Christopher Drew ...''

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    www.organiser.org/dynamic/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=225&page=27

    NEWS ARTICLE from Organiser, 2-16-08, By Sandhya Jain, Bharat Prakashan(Delhi)

    Issues: February 24, 2008

    ``Internet and the Iran oil bourse

    The Iranian Oil Bourse [scheduled to open on 2-17-08] will hasten the speed with which major oil countries dump the dollar for the euro; thus hastening the collapse of the US economy. [The Chinese and Japanese have purchased trillions of dollars of U. S. government bonds in order to guarantee their ability to buy oil from Arabs who will only accept dollars ('the petrodollar').]

    It is pertinent that public opinion in America and other western nations is still ignorant that Saddam Hussain's decision to switch from dollars to euros for the purchase of Iraqi oil was the principal factor behind the invasion of Iraq.

    Political observers feel the Iran government's plan to inaugurate its Oil Bourse this month had a connection with the sudden inexplicable cutting of several undersea internet cables. All internet access in Iran was cut and total internet blackout was experienced for a few days. Indian BPOs and focus of media attention for the slowdowns that nearly crippled the industry for almost a week, were probably unintentional targets of what appears to be a far deeper conspiracy.

    Possibly nine cable cuts have been detected since January 23. The first report said two cables were cut off the Egyptian Mediterranean coast, disrupting three-quarters of the international communications between Europe and the Middle East. These cuts were initially attributed to hits by ships anchors. But later, the Egyptian Ministry of Communications and Information Technology said video footage of coastal waters in the region of the two cables showed there was no ship traffic for 12 hours preceding and 12 hours following the time of the cable cuts.

    In view of subsequent developments, sabotage seems more likely. A few days later, another undersea cable was found cut in the Persian Gulf, 55 kilometers off Dubai. There followed reports of another damaged undersea cable between Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Soon another report mentioned a cut undersea cable running through the Suez to Sri Lanka. As media interest caught on, the Khaleej Times reported on February 4, 2008 that as many as five undersea cables were damaged, including a cable in the Persian Gulf near Bandar Abbas, Iran; and SeaMeWe4 undersea cable near Penang, Malaysia.

    There is no logical explanation for the sudden damage to nearly nine undersea cables in the course of a week. The known list so far includes one near Marseille, France; two near Alexandria, Egypt; one near Dubai, Persian Gulf; one off Bandar Abbas, Iran, Persian Gulf; one between Qatar and the UAE, in the Persian Gulf; one in the Suez, Egypt and one near Penang, Malaysia. The Bharti Airtel-VSNL-seven global telecom firms' new submarine cable from India to France via the Middle East was cut in more than one place. In fact, the most affected region is the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia.

    It is striking that almost all these cuts have taken place near Muslim countries, which are naturally affected. Thus suggests the handiwork of parties capable of undersea cable sabotage, having a pronounced anti-Muslim bias ...

    This brings us back to the Oil Bourse that Iran planned to open in February 2008 [2-17-08], for trade in `non-dollar currencies'. Obviously, this has enormous geo-political and economic implications for America, as hitherto the dollar had been dominant international reserve currency for oil transactions.

    The American economic meltdown on account of sheer fiscal indiscipline spanning decades has, however, caused corporates, bankers, and governments to look for alternative currencies. In the age of sovereign wealth funds, no nation wants to buy the sharply falling dollar. A functional Iranian Oil Bourse, selling oil tankers in non-dollar currencies, is a terrible snub to America.

    As discussed previously in these columns, members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE, propose to adopt a monetary union and single currency by 2010 (like the euro). Last May, Kuwait ended the dominance of the dollar and adopted a basket of currencies, triggering rumours that the UAE and Qatar would follow suit. In December 2007, the GCC, barring Kuwait, agreed to continue to peg their currencies to the American dollar, but experts expect this to change as the dollar continues to slide. Certainly, by 2010, they will go for the new GCC currency.

    It is equally certain that if Iran manages to open its own Oil Bourse, the GCC will trade there on account of geographic proximity. This will make Iran the main hub for oil deals in the Middle East. The three damaged undersea cables in the Persian Gulf are an expression of anger and frustration at the inevitability of this development. For Iran, there is an additional message that its nuclear programme is riling the falling superpower.

    The Iranian Oil Bourse will hasten the speed with which major oil countries dump the dollar for the euro; thus hastening the collapse of the US economy. It is pertinent that public opinion in America and other western nations is still ignorant that Saddam Hussain's decision to switch from dollars to euros for the purchase of Iraqi oil was the principal factor behind the invasion of Iraq. This could have encouraged other OPEC nations, besides Nigeria, Mexico, Venezuela, to follow, and thus endangered US economy.

    Despite the invasion of Iraq and the possible threat to Iran, the US monopoly over the oil trade is now in peril. Hitherto, oil has been valued in dollars and mainly traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange or London's International Petroleum Exchange, both of which are owned by American corporates. This monopoly compelled national banks the world over to buy dollars, and this compulsion allowed the US to build a debt of over eight trillion dollars. Once the euro emerges as the principal oil currency, the dollar will plummet in value, sinking the American and British economies. Political observers fear a knee-jerk reaction from Washington. ''

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    www.daniweb.com/blogs/entry2088.html

    COMMENTARY by Michael Knight from Dani Web, 2-15-08

    Michael_Knight's Blog

    ``Rumors and speculation about why five undersea cables to the Middle East have been severed and what it means for IT security ...

    The comment storm across the blogosphere ... has raised awareness of several important facts: The USS Jimmy Carter, a Seawolf-class nuclear-powered submarine, can spy on the Internet underwater; the Pentagon considers the Internet an enemy weapons system, and President George W. Bush signed a secret order to expand the NSA's network-monitoring programs just four days before the first two fibre-optic cables were mysteriously disrupted.''

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    www.capitolhillblue.com/cont/node/4511

    Article from Capitol Hill Blue, 2-10-08,

    By Robert A. Kezelis

    ``... In 1985, FBI agent Robert Hanssen began spying for the USSR, just 6 years before its collapse. One of the secrets he sold to them was the fact that a special ops submarine managed to tap the most important USSR military undersea cable in existence. The sub did this not once, but repeatedly, coming back to pick up the recorded tapes, and to replace, even upgrade the tapping equipment.

    The exact dates of tapping and the results of that spying are murky, but by the few, reliable accounts that discussed that op, it was incredibly successful.

    In 2001, after the attack by Saudi, Yemeni and other extremists, Iran initiated contact with the US, attempting to coordinate and deal once and for all with the Taliban and the hated Al Qaida. Iran had as much distaste for AQ as the US did.

    Bush, with the vainglorious advice of Dick Cheney, and the truly inane insights of Condi Rice, rejected all contact. Bush followed up that rejection by labeling Iran part of the Axis of Evil.

    Iran was understandably chagrined. The moderate leaders, who had pushed for more contact and cooperation, lost face, and worse, because of the US moves, they also lost control, allowing the more conservative forces to extend their power.

    Iran decided to do more than simply react, they decided to take other steps to limit the damage that America could do to Iran. Their first step? Cutting economic ties. However, they were not the first to try.

    The man that actually did demand Euro for his oil was Saddam Hussein in 2000. At first, his demand was met with ridicule, later with neglect, but as it became clearer that he meant business, political pressure was exerted to change his mind. When other countries, like Iran, wanted payment in other currencies, most notably Euro and Yen, the danger to the dollar was clear and present, and a punitive action was in order. Bush's Shock-and-Awe in Iraq was not about Saddam's nuclear capabilities, about defending human rights, about spreading democracy, or even about seizing oil fields [reduction of Iraqi oil production was essential for increasing the price of oil]; it was about defending the dollar, ergo the American Empire.

    www.energybulletin.net/12125.html

    This month, Iran was supposed to open its own bourse, trading oil and oil futures in Euros and other currencies, but not the dollar. Delinking oil from the dollar would protect Iran from Bush's spendthrift invasion and occupation of Iraq, and the resulting collapse of the US dollar.

    Being a high tech project, the tubes of the internets would play a vital role in this new market. And behold, four major cables linking the Middle East to the rest of the world were severed, all within one week. Some ignorant US sources dutifully tried to blame it on "ship anchors", but even the Egyptians refused to go along with that bogus spin. Not only were two cables away from any shipping lines, no ships had passed through there at the time of the disruption.

    Looking at the flotsam and jetsam that used to be the ancient and proud country of Iraq, replaced by a Green Zone which now sits next to the world's largest open sewer, one might suspect that decoupling oil from the dollar might incite a strong reaction by certain elements deep within the US power structure.

    US submarine technology has not stayed static since the 1970s. To the contrary, it has improved, along with other military technology. As we learned last year from AT&T, tapping every single communication within a phone company is not all that hard, not for the NSA, CIA, and with the tacit support of your DOJ and White House.

    How much of a stretch is it to add 2+2? Either the Israelis or the US, severed the intertubes providing Iran with internet access, and in the process, tapped the lines with hi-tech links, either before or during the repair process.

    He who controls information flow, controls pretty much everything. And if the US managed to tap into the entire middle east's net connections with these "accidents", well I suspect our lives have just gotten a whole lot more complex.''

    Login or register to post comments

    Submitted by JeremiahJones on February 12, 2008

    ``It doesn't matter where the oil comes from, it's a global commodity. Price is determined by speculation over the supply-demand relationship (demand being pretty inelastic in the short run). Rebels in Nigeria boost cash flows to Dallas banks as East Texas crude is bid up. (Ever wonder where the funding for these obscure, long-running insurgencies comes from?) The oil cartels have been playing geopolitics for over a century: A little regime change here, a little rumble in the jungle there, pretty soon you're talking real pricing power.''

    -------------

    www.oxan.com/worldnextweek/2008-02-14/Iranianoilbourselaunches.aspx

    NEWS ARICLE from Oxford Analytica, 2-14-08,

    February 16-22, 2008

    ``Iran launches oil bourse

    The long-delayed Iranian Oil Bourse (IOB) will start operations on Sunday [2-17-08], the official Iranian news agency IRNA said, citing the country's oil minister.

    The exchange, based on the Gulf island of Kish, a free trade zone, opens with a whimper, rather than the promised roar. The IOB has long been touted by Iranian news agencies as a petrobourse for petroleum, petrochemicals and gas in various non-dollar currencies, primarily the euro, which would have a negative impact on the US economy and financial system ...''

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    2014 Feature Theory of the Year: Is Earth Expanding?

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    The Bi-Monthly Magazine of the New Energy Foundation, Inc.

    P.O. Box 2816 Concord, NH 03302-2816

    Phone: 603-485-4700 Fax: 603-485-4710

    http://www.infinite-energy.com staff@infinite-energy.com

    August 28, 2014

    Editorial Note

    Issue 117 of Infinite Energy includes a reprint of Dr. James Maxlow's Natural Philosophy Alliance paper, "Global Expansion Tectonics: A Significant Challenge for Physics." ...

    Global Expansion Tectonics:

    A Significant Challenge for Physics

    by Dr. James Maxlow

    Box 362, Narangba, Queensland, 4504, Australia

    E-mail: TerrellaPress@bigpond.com

    A very important geophysical contribution to appreciating modern tectonic theory has been the completion of seafloor magnetic mapping, plus radiometric and paleontological age dating of seafloor crusts beneath all Earth's oceans. This seafloor mapping places finite spatial and temporal constraints on the crustal plate motion history within all of the ocean basins, back to the Early Jurassic Period (approximately 170 million years ago).

    The magnetic patterns and age dating determined during this seafloor mapping program were historically interpreted as evidence for seafloor growth and spreading, which led to the promotion of Plate Tectonic theory during the 1960s - a theory that adopts and continues to insist on the fundamental premise that Earth radius remains constant with time.

    In contrast, by removing this premise and allowing Earth radius to vary with time, this same seafloor mapping provides us with a unique opportunity to accurately measure past Earth radius, to both latitudinally and longitudinally constrain plate assemblages on smaller radius Earth models, and to quantify a rate of increase in crustal surface area, and hence radius throughout Earth history; giving rise to the alternative tectonic theory called Global Expansion Tectonics.

    Mathematical modeling of this seafloor mapping shows that Earth radius is increasing exponentially through time, and radius is currently increasing at a rate of 22 millimetres per year.

    While this seafloor mapping quantifies Global Expansion Tectonics as a viable alternative to conventional tectonic theory, a fundamental challenge is presented to physics, whereby an explanation is required to explain how and where additional matter is generated and accumulated within the Earth in order to comply with the increase in Earth radius, as evidenced from empirical seafloor crustal data.

    1. Introduction

    Conventional Plate Tectonic theory

    Plate Tectonics today is considered the main tectonic theory in Earth Sciences. Tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the Greek ("pertaining to building") is a scientific term that describes the large scale motions of the Earth's crust.

    In conventional Plate Tectonic theory the Earth's crust is broken up into a series seven or eight major and many minor plates, made up of both continental and oceanic crusts ...

    These crustal plates move in relation to one another at one of three types of plate boundaries:

  • convergent or collisional boundaries, where plates are said to collide resulting in the formation of mountains;

  • divergent boundaries, where ocean crusts break apart and new volcanic crust is erupted along spreading centres;

  • and conservative or transform boundaries, where plates are faulted relative to each other.

    Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountainbuilding, and oceanic trench formation are said to occur along each of these plate boundaries with movement of the plates typically varying from 0 to 100 millimetres annually.

    The tectonic plates are composed of two types of crust: thick continental crusts and thin oceanic crusts. One of the main points the theory proposes is that an equal amount of surface area of the plates must disappear into the mantle along the convergent boundaries by a process referred to as "subduction", more or less in equilibrium with the new oceanic crust that is formed along the divergent margins by seafloor spreading.

    This is also referred to as the "conveyor belt principle". In this way, it is assumed, but never acknowledged as a basic premise, that the total surface area of the Earth remains constant and hence the radius of the Earth also remains constant throughout time.

    Fig. ... Map of the Earth showing distribution of tectonic plates comprising continental and oceanic crustal rocks. Although subduction is believed by plate tectonists to be the strongest force driving plate motions, it is acknowledged by many researchers that it cannot be the only force since there are plates, such as the North American Plate, that are moving, yet are nowhere being subducted.

    The same is true for the enormous Eurasian Plate, and especially for the Antarctican Plate. So, even though Plate Tectonics is currently considered the main tectonic theory in Earth Sciences, the sources and mechanism for plate motion are still a matter of intensive research and discussion among many Earth scientists.

    2.2. Alternative Theory

    Somewhat like the way Alfred Wegener's original arguments for Continental Drift were initially heckled and rejected during the early 20th century, the concept of an Earth increasing its radius also continues to this day to be unfairly rejected, based on very similar, rather emotive argument.

    In all fairness though, during the pre-1960s global data gathering was simply not present or not extensive enough for early researchers into Earth expansion to argue their case with "sound geological evidence".

    Since then a vast amount of new global geological, geophysical, and geographical data has been gathered and studied. While routinely used in Plate Tectonic studies, this data has never been seriously looked at other than from a constant, static radius Earth perspective. More importantly, this new data has never been applied to the alternative theories, such as Earth Expansion, which unfortunately leaves science without an acceptable alternative geological viewpoint or basis for correct scientific argument.

    The suggestion that continents have not always been at their present positions was introduced as early as 1596 by the Dutch map maker Abraham Ortelius. Ortelius suggested, based on the symmetric outlines of the Atlantic coastlines, that the Americas, Eurasia and Africa were once joined and have since drifted apart "by earthquakes and floods", creating the modern Atlantic Ocean. For evidence he wrote: "The vestiges of the rupture reveal themselves, if someone brings forward a map of the world and considers care- fully the coasts of the three continents."

    In 1915 Alfred Wegener also noted how the east coast of South America and the west coast of Africa looked as if they were once attached, and he went further to suggest that the present continents once formed a single Pangaean land mass the ancient supercontinent called Pangaea, that subsequently broke up and drifted apart.

    So, did Wegener get it all wrong? No, he didn't get it wrong, in fact he is justifiably credited for being one of the first scientists to apply correct geological observation to support and substantiate his claims. But, what he and others subsequently didn't do was to go far enough.

    What he and others have since failed to recognize is that, as well as fitting the South American and African coastlines together to give a reasonably good fit-together, the remaining Indian, Pacific and Southern Ocean coastlines can just as easily be fitted together, with similar fossil and geological evidence to support these observations ...

    Carey concluded ... that the fit of these ancient continents "could be made much more precise in these areas if the diameter of the Earth was smaller at the time of Pangaea". Unfortunately, with the subsequent promotion of Plate Tectonics, these basic physical observations and conclusions of Carey continue to be neglected and totally ignored to this day.

    During the 20th century there were also a number of other independent thinkers who considered opening of the oceans could be attributed to an increase in Earth radius. Roberto Mantovani in 1889, and again in 1909, published a theory of "earth expansion and continental drift" [2].

    In this theory he considered that a closed continent covered the entire surface on a smaller Earth. He suggested that "thermal expansion led to volcanic activity, which broke the land mass into smaller continents". These continents then drifted away from each other because of further expansion at the "rip-zones", where the oceans currently lie.

    This was followed by the pioneering work and publications of Lindemann in 1927 [3], small Earth modeling by Ott Christoph Hilgenberg during the 1930s [4], Professor Sam Warren Carey during the 1950s to late 1990s, Jan Koziar during the 1980s, and small Earth modeling by Klaus Vogel during the 1980s and 1990s.

    These, and other model makers at the time all showed that if each of the continents were physically fitted together they would neatly envelope the Earth with continental crust on a small Earth globe some 50 to 55% of its present size.

    This coincidence led Hilgenberg [4] and Vogel [5], and similarly Carey [1] from his early Continental Drift studies, as well as Koziar [6] from his extensive mathematical and crustal modeling, to conclude "terrestrial expansion brought about the splitting and gradual dispersal of continents as they moved radially outwards during geological time". Throughout subsequent literature, small Earth models, and hence Earth expansion, continue to be judged by the scientific community to be speculative and inconclusive.

    It is considered that one of the main reasons for this judgment is because, with early reconstruction based primarily on a visual fit-together of opposing continental margins, the small Earth models often gave rise to a wide variation of crustal fits, in particular for the Pacific Ocean region. Similarly, a conclusive, quantifiable "motor and mechanism" for Earth expansion was not able to be given.

    The small Earth models of Hilgenberg and Vogel in particular indicate, however, that an ancient Pangaean crustal assemblage on a small Earth globe, representing between 55% to 60% of the present Earth radius, can produce a tight, coherent fit of all continents, remnant mountain belts from the various continents match consistently, geological boundaries are maintained, and ancient biological boundaries match precisely.

    An Important Contribution to Tectonic Theory

    In 1947, a team of scientists led by Maurice Ewing, utilizing the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's research vessel Atlantis, confirmed the existence of a rise in the level of the seafloor in the central Atlantic Ocean, now known as the mid-ocean-ridge. They also found that the seafloor beneath the thin layer of sediments consisted of basalt, not granite as previously assumed, which is one of the main constituents of the continental rocks.

    They also found the seafloor crustal rocks to be much thinner than continental crust. All of these new findings raised important and intriguing questions about the way we perceive seafloor crust. The most important of which was that the ocean is not simply "oceanised" or drowned continental crust covered by sea water, as previously thought.

    Beginning in the 1950s, scientists, using magnetic instru- ments (magnetometers) adapted from airborne devices developed during World War II to detect submarines, also began to recognize strange magnetic patterns across the seafloor. This finding, though unexpected, was not entirely surprising because it is known that basalt - the iron-rich volcanic rock making up the seafloor, contains a strongly magnetic mineral called magnetite, which can locally distort compass readings.

    More importantly, because the presence of magnetite gives the basalt measurable magnetic properties, these newly discovered magnetic seafloor patterns provided an important means to study the distribution of volcanic rocks throughout each of the ocean floors.

    As more and more of the seafloor was mapped during the 1950s, these magnetic patterns turned out not to be random or isolated occurrences, but instead revealed recognizable zebra-like stripes, found to be symmetrical about the mid-ocean-ridges ...

    Alternating stripes of basaltic rock were shown to be laid out in parallel rows on either side of the mid-ocean-ridge, one stripe with normal polarity and the adjoining stripe with reversed polarity. The overall pattern, as defined by these alternating bands of normally and reversely polarized rock became known as "magnetic striping".

    Expanding Earth

    Fig. 2. Symmetrical magnetic stripping across part of the Atlantic Ocean mid-ocean-ridge.

    The discovery of this symmetrical magnetic striping pattern suggested a close relationship between the mid-ocean-ridges and the formation of the stripes. In 1961, scientists - most notably the American geologist Harry Hess, began to theorize that the mid-ocean-ridges mark structurally weak zones, where the ocean floor was being "ripped apart" lengthwise along the mid-ocean-ridge crest. From this it was suggested that new volcanic magma from deep within the Earth must rise through these weak zones and eventually erupt along the crest of the ridges to create new seafloor crust.

    This process, later called seafloor spreading, operates over many millions of years and continues to form new sea floor along the entire 60,000km-long system of mid-ocean-ridges now known to be present in each of the oceans.

    This hypothesis was supported by several lines of evidence. At or near the crest of the mid-ocean-ridges the rocks are very young, and these become progressively older away from the ridge crest. The youngest rocks at the ridge crest always have present-day normal polarity.

    Stripes of rock parallel to the ridge crest were then shown to have alternated in magnetic polarity from normal to reverse to normal, etc, suggesting the Earth's magnetic field has reversed many times throughout its history. By explaining both the zebra-like magnetic striping and the construction of the mid-ocean-ridge system, the seafloor spreading hypothesis quickly gained converts. Furthermore, the sea-floor crust now came to be universally appreciated as a natural "tape recording" of the history of the reversals in the Earth's magnetic field.

    A profound consequence of this observation of seafloor spreading is that new crust was, and is now still being continually created along the oceanic ridges. This observation was initially considered to support the theory of Earth Expansion, whereby new crust was formed at the mid-ocean-ridges as a consequence of an increase in Earth radius, however history shows that subsequent work favoured the Plate Tectonic theory, whereby excess crust was postulated to "disappear" along seafloor trenches, where so-called "subduction" occurs.

    Bedrock Geological Map of the World

    Subsequent work by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World and UNESCO [7] during the 1980s led to the publication of the "Bedrock Geological Map of the World" in 1990 (Figure 3, and legend shown in Figure 4).

    In this global geological map, the magnetic striping shown in Figure 2 was taken a step further. By dating the ages of the seafloor crust at regular intervals throughout each of the oceans, and comparing these ages with the magnetic striping, the seafloor crust was then mapped according to the ages of the rocks.

    Expanding Earth

    Fig. 3. Bedrock Geological Map of the World (digitized with permission from the Commission for the Geological Map of the World and UNESCO, 1990 [7]) ...

    At this stage in our introduction there are a number of very important considerations about the bedrock geological mapping shown in Figure 3 that must be fully appreciated. As noted, this seafloor mapping is a natural "tape recording" of the history of the reversals in the Earth's magnetic field, and similarly represents a factual distribution of the volcanic rocks that make up the sea- floor crusts.

    This preserved history must therefore be strictly adhered to during any theoretical modeling, or assemblage of the various crustal plates and continents back in time.

    It should also be appreciated that none, or very little of this magnetic striping and age dating evidence was available when both Plate Tectonic and Expansion Tectonic theories were first proposed. The global distribution of magnetic striping and age dating was, in fact, completed later in order to quantify the assemblages of the various plates and continents on a Plate Tectonic Earth model.

    Expanding Earth

    The important considerations include:

  • Firstly, the pattern of colours of the crustal rocks shown in Figure 3 confirms that the seafloor crustal rocks are vastly different from the continental crustal rocks. Similarly, many of the continental crustal rocks, in general, are more ancient than the seafloor crustal rocks.

  • Secondly, the striping shown in Figure 3 confirms that all of the oceans contain a mid-ocean-ridge and each ocean is increasing its surface area away from the mid-ocean-ridges with time. It can be seen that this increase in surface area is symmetrical about the mid-ocean-ridges in each ocean, and the maximum age of exposed seafloor volcanic crust, located along the continental margins, is Early Jurassic - about 170 million years old.

  • Thirdly, if it were possible to move back in time, each of the stripes shown in Figure 3 must be progressively removed. The corresponding edges of each coloured stripe must then be moved closer together as we move back in time - that is, the erupted volcanic rocks within each stripe must be returned to the mantle where they originally came from.

  • Fourthly, as we move back in time, each of the conti- nents must move closer together in strict accordance with the striping evidence, regardless of which tectonic theory is adhered to. This phenomenon can then be used to constrain the location of the various crustal plates when modeling the location of the ancient continents and oceans back in time.

  • Fifthly, by measuring the surface areas of each stripe in turn this information can be used to investigate the potential change in Earth surface area with time, and from this investigate the potential variance in Earth radius with time.

    Tectonic Comparisons

    In Plate Tectonic theory, the radius of the Earth remains essentially constant with time. As new volcanic rock intrudes along the mid-ocean-ridge spreading centres, the seafloor widens allowing new seafloor crust to form.

    To maintain a theoretical constant radius Earth, an equal amount of pre-existing seafloor or continental crust must then be disposed of elsewhere and returned to the mantle by a theorized process called "subduction". This subduction process forms the basis for Plate Tectonic theory, and consequentially is essential for maintaining a static radius Earth premise. While this process appears simple and logical, and of course almost universally accepted, it does not always honor the geological evidence preserved in rocks from adjoining continents.

    Alternatively, for an Expansion Tectonic Earth, the very same volcanic rock injected along the mid-ocean-ridge spreading centers again widen the oceans and adds to the surface area of sea-floor crust. For an Expansion Tectonic Earth, this increase in surface area of all seafloors is a result of an increase in Earth radius, and there is therefore no requirement for any net disposal of ex- cess crust by subduction processes, nor is there a need to consider pre-existing crusts.

    What this means is, for an Expansion Tectonic Earth, prior to about 200 million years ago the modern oceans did not exist. At that time, all continental crust was united to form a single super-continent called Pangaea, enclosing the entire ancient Earth on a smaller radius Earth.

    Instead of the modern oceans, a network of relatively shallow seas then covered low-lying parts of the Pangaean supercontinent. At that time all of the relatively young seafloor volcanic crust, as well as much of the ocean water and atmosphere were retained within the mantle, where they originated from.

    Similarly, crustal modeling studies demonstrate that all data from each of the adjoining continental crusts support and quantify an increasing Earth radius process.

    While arguments exist for and against both tectonic theories, it is emphasized that model makers have demonstrated that the crustal fragments and supporting geological evidence making up both the ancient supercontinents and modern continents can indeed be fitted together precisely, somewhat like a spherical jigsaw, on a smaller radius Earth to form a single supercontinent. The question that must therefore be asked is, is this empirical phenomenon fact, or mere coincidence?

    2. Measuring Earth Radius

    If I were to ask what the radius of the Earth was at say one million years in the past, most, if not all people should say they do not know. In reality, most people would probably err towards saying that the ancient Earth radius was the same as it is today.

    If prompted as to how they know this, I would envisage that many of the answers would range from a guess, to religious indoctrination, through to recitation of the Kant-Laplace theory of the creation of the Solar System, or quotations from the Big Bang theory.

    As we all know, "proof of any theory comes through direct observation or by direct measurement". If you cannot physically measure the ancient Earth radius, or provide unequivocal evidence to support conclusions about the ancient Earth radius, then all premises and assumptions regarding a constant Earth radius are mere speculation.

    In other words, if you cannot conclusively provide evidence to say the ancient Earth radius was, or was not the same as today then current conventional Plate Tectonic theory is potentially incorrect and consideration must therefore be given to alternative theories such as Expansion Tectonics.

    Measuring Ancient Earth Surface Areas

    Historically, the determination and quantification of an ancient radius of the Earth has been one of the most basic requirements of any expanding Earth thesis. Prior to completion of the bedrock geological mapping of all oceans during the 1980s, attempts at determining ancient Earth radius were made using empirical modeling studies, as well as from remnant magnetism preserved in rocks, early measurement of areas of seafloor spreading, mantle plume separation and astronomical observation.

    However, in all cases, because of the limitations in the quality and quantity of data available at the time, it was not possible to accurately determine an ancient Earth radius convincingly enough to sway conventional thinking.

    Consideration of available literature suggests that there was also no unified opinion amongst most authors as to whether the Earth may be expanding, contracting, pulsating, rhythmical or static with time.

    Depending on which method was used to determine the ancient Earth radius, reference is made in the literature of a potential "large" expansion of the Earth equated with a rate of increase in Earth radius of between 0.4 to 2 centimetres per year. There are also descriptions of "gross" radial expansion reaching several metres per year, and another widely held opinion, which allowed for "small" to "negligible" radial increase in Earth radius of up to 1 millimetre per year.

    Both Jan Koziar in 1980 [6] and Blinov in 1983 [8] were the first to measure seafloor surface areas and they both developed very similar formulae to determine a rate of change in ancient Earth radius. These formulae were based on measurements made on early versions of seafloor crustal mapping, plus estimates of continental surface areas of Phanerozoic (rocks younger than 570 million years) and Precambrian rocks (rocks older than 570 million years).

    Now, with the completion of the Bedrock Geological Map of the World [7], it is a relatively easy process to mathematically derive ancient Earth radii using measurements of surface areas of seafloor crusts. We also have the added advantage that these seafloor crusts have known ages to enable us to accurately constrain when the crusts were deposited.

    Once you know the areas of each of the seafloor crustal stripes, a formula for rate of change in Earth radius can then be determined. This presumes of course that any increase in surface area is confined to the seafloor crusts, which is not strictly correct, but is a reasonable approximation.

    On an Expansion Tectonic Earth increases in continental crustal areas are primarily a result of crustal stretch, resulting from changing surface curvature through time.

    It should, however, be appreciated that the total of the time periods shown by the seafloor mapping in Figure 3 represents only about 4 percent of the total known and age dated Earth history.

    When we hear mention of any form of Earth expansion it is this limited timeframe that is typically associated with the concept. It is rarely, if ever appreciated that Earth expansion may in fact have also occurred before this period to include the entire history of the Earth.

    To measure the surface areas of each of the coloured seafloor stripes in Figure 3 we need to eliminate as much projection distortion from our map as we can, and ideally we need to display the information in spherical format. The method adopted here required the existing Bedrock Geological Map of the World (Figure 3) to be displayed as a 24-gore sinusoidal projection map (Figure 5).

    A sinusoidal projection format gives undistorted, true-to-scale geological information from anywhere within the map area, enabling us to both measure and model the data. The term "gore" simply means that each curved stripe, representing fifteen degrees of longitude, tapers to zero degrees longitude at each pole.

    And in Figure ...

    [A] 24-gore sinusoidal map projection of The Bedrock Geological Map of the World. This projection enables the geological map to be displayed in distortion-free spherical format and forms the primary base-map for both surface area measurement and small Earth model reconstructions.

    By using this sinusoidal map, each coloured seafloor stripe can be digitized in turn, the surface areas of successive intervals measured, and an ancient Earth radius derived for each time period shown. The raw data from this exercise is summarized in Table 1.

    Table 1. Empirical surface areas of each coloured seafloor stripe and derived ancient Earth radius.

    Age Range, Millions of Years before the Present

    Measured Surface Area (x107 km2)

    Cummulative Surface Area (x107 km2)

    Present Area Minus Ancient Surface Area (x107 km2)

    Earth Radius (km)

    0 0 0 51.0000 6370.80

    0-1.9 0.5342 0.5342 50.4658 6337.15

    1.9-5.9 1.3328 1.8670 49.3300 6265.43

    5.9-23.0 4.9213 6.7883 44.2117 5931.49

    23.0-37.7 4.1624 10.9507 40.0493 5645.37

    37.7-59.2 4.1649 15.1156 35.8844 5343.77

    59.2-66.2 1.0462 16.1618 34.8382 5265.30

    66.2-84.0 4.7956 20.9574 30.0426 4889.49

    84.0-118.7 5.6758 26.6332 24.3668 4403.46

    118.7-143.8 1.9348 28.5680 22.4320 4225.02

    143.8-205 1.9386 30.5066 20.4934 4038.31

    Rate of Increase in Earth Radius

    A rate of increase in Earth radius was determined in Maxlow [9] by digitising the areas of post-Triassic seafloor mapping data ... and mathematically modeling the resultant cumulative crustal surface areas (Table 1) using formulae developed by Koziar [6] and Blinov [8].

    A linear regression analysis of cumulative surface area data demonstrated that the goodness of fit of the data was best described by an exponential increase in surface area with time. From this empirical cumulative surface area data a mathematical expression for post-Triassic exponential increase in Earth radius was derived, and the ancient Earth radii determined, shown plotted in Figure ...

    In contrast to the finite constraint provided by post-Triassic seafloor surface area data, determining a mathematical expression for rate of increase in Earth radius from the Archaean to present-day depends on establishing a Precambrian primordial Earth radius ...

    Expanding Earth

    Fig. 8. Spherical models of a post-Triassic Expansion Tectonic Earth. Models demonstrate that seafloor crustal plates assembled on Expansion Tectonic Earth models coincide fully with seafloor spreading and geological data and accord with derived ancient Earth radii.

    Pre-Triassic spherical modeling was continued back in time by progressively reducing the ancient Earth radius in incremental stages until each of the remnant Precambrian crustal complexes and basement rocks were assembled. While controversial, this construction method involves progressive removal of all younger continental crust and restoration of basins and rift zones to a pre-extension or pre-rift configuration on a reduced radius earth model ...

    Unlike the modeling studies of Koziar and Vogel, Precambrian sedimentary basins were also partially removed during modeling to allow for formation of extensional basin settings (e.g. Etheridge et al., [11], for ensialic extension within the Proterozoic basins of northern Australia). This resulted in an Archaean small Earth model comprising remnant Precambrian crustal rocks with an indicated primordial Earth radius of approximately 1700 kilometers. This empirically derived primordial Earth radius therefore represents a potential limiting radius for an Archaean proto-Earth ...

    While seemingly incomprehensible, quantification of the methodology and logic behind both the empirical evidence and modeling studies can be found in Maxlow [9]. Reliance is simply made on basic geological evidence preserved in the rock-record. This evidence is empirical data; we are not compromising the geological evidence in any way, only human comprehension.

    By moving back in time all we are doing is returning eroded sediments back to the ancient land surfaces from where they originate, plus returning intruded and extruded magmatic rocks (plus a proportion of the ocean waters and atmospheric gases) back to the mantle from where they originated from and reducing the Earth radius to accommodate for the reduction in surface area.

    A mathematical equation for an exponential rate of increase in Earth radius extending from the Archaean to present-day is then derived by considering the mathematical equation for linear regression:

    y = Ax + B

    Equation 1

    Where: y = the Y axis, x = the X axis, A = the gradient of a line, B = the y-intercept of the line.

    For a linear increase in palaeoradius this equation is written as:

    R = At + B

    Equation 2

    Where: R = Earth radius, t = time before the present (negative).

    To determine an exponential increase in radius Equation 2 can be written as:

    lnRa/R0 = At + B

    Equation 3

    Where: ln = natural logarithm, R0 = present Earth radius at time t0, Ra = ancient Earth radius at time ta.

    Equation 3 simply expresses the exponential curve as a straight line, suitable for analysis using the linear regression Equation 1.

    Rearranging Equation 3 for radius:

    Ra = R0e(At +B)

    Equation 4

    Where: e = base of natural logarithm.

    Mathematical modeling of a rate of post Triassic Earth expansion in Maxlow demonstrated that the y-intercept B is negligible and can be disregarded. The gradient of the line (A), representing the ancient Earth radius, is a constant k. Equation 4 can then be written as:

    Ra = R0e(kt)

    Equation 5

    The early Archaean primordial Earth radius Rp, determined from empirical small Earth modeling (Figure 9), is approximately 1700 kilometers. This represents the radius of a primordial Archaean proto-Earth at formation or crustal stabilization of the primitive Earth. It is inferred from empirical post-Triassic surface area studies that changes to Earth radius from the Archaean to present-day increases exponentially. An equation for exponential increase in Earth radius from the Archaean to present-day is then expressed as:

    Ra = (R0-Rp)ekt + Rp

    Equation 6

    Where: k = 4.5366x10-9/year.

    The constant k is determined from Equation 3 by modeling post-Triassic radii derived from empirical seafloor data (Table 1) using 1700 kilometers as the limiting primordial proto-Earth radius to solve for gradient A.

    An exponential increase in Earth radius, extending from the Archaean to present-day, calculated from Equation 6, is shown graphically in Figure 10. The ancient radii determined by Koziar [6], based on a 2800 kilometer primordial Earth radius for the Late Precambrian and by Vogel [12], based on a 2850 kilometer primordial Earth radius are also shown for comparison. Both Koziar and Vogel determined a primordial Earth radius by estimating the surface area of preserved Precambrian crust. The locations of Expansion Tectonic Earth models [are] in Maxlow [9] ...

    Graph shows post-Triassic increase derived from seafloor mapping and pre-Jurassic increase derived from an Archaean primordial Earth radius of 1700 km.

    The exponential ancient Earth radius curve ... suggests that during the early mid-Precambrian Eons Earth's ancient radius remained relatively static, increasing by approximately 60 kilometers during 3 billion years of Earth history. Since then the Earth has undergone an accelerating increase in radius to the present-day.

    This increase in both surface area and radius was initially accommodated for in the geological rock-record by crustal extension (stretching). By the late Permian Period (approximately 250 million years ago) the ability for the crustal rocks to extend was then exceeded, resulting in crustal rupture and breakup of the ancient Pangaean supercontinent, giving rise to the modern continents and opening of the modern oceans.

    Kinematics of Earth Expansion

    The incremental variations in the physical dimensions of an Earth undergoing an exponential increase in radius with time are qualified further by considering radius, circumference, surface area and volume.

    Consideration is also given to mass, density and surface gravity under endpoint conditions of constant Earth mass and constant Earth density. At this stage ancient mass, density and surface gravity are indeterminate. Hypothetical variations in mass, density and derived surface gravity are included here to qualify a postulated cause of Earth expansion as proposed by Carey (1983 [13], 1988 [14], 1996) [15].

    The physical variation in radius, circumference, surface area and volume of an Earth undergoing an exponential increase in radius from the Archaean to present-day is shown in Figure 11. Each graph shows a 3 billion year history of Precambrian crustal stability, with ancient radius increasing by approximately 60 kilometers, followed by a steady to rapidly accelerating period of increase to the present-day ...

    Thei ... present-day annual variations in radius, circumference, surface area and volume are derived using Equation 6. The annual incremental rates are:

    Radius dR/dt0 = 22 mm/year

    Circumference dC/dt0 = 140 mm/year

    Surface area dS/dt0 = 3.5 km2/year

    Volume dV/dt0 = 11,000 km3/year

    The incremental rates of Earth expansion determined here compare favorably with estimations derived from published data. For example, Steiner (1977) [16] estimated a global rate of area seafloor spreading during the past 5 million years of 3.19 km2/yr.

    This equates to a calculated rate of radial increase of 20 mm/yr. Also, Garfunkel (1975) [17] calculated an aerial seafloor spreading rate of 3.15 km2/yr and Parsons (1982) [18] 3.45 km2/yr, which equate to radial increases of 20 and 23 mm/yr respectively.

    These figures are substantiated by early space geodetic measurements of intercontinental chord lengths, with a speculative rate of increase in Earth radius calculated by Parkinson (in Carey, 1988) [14] of 24 ± 8 mm/yr and a global mean value calculated by Robaudo & Harrison (1993) [19] of 18 mm/yr.

    The rate of equatorial circumferential increase was calculated by Blinov (1983) [8] to be 120 mm/yr by considering relative plate motions in the Pacific, Atlantic and Southern Oceans, giving a rate of radial expansion of 19.1 mm/yr.

    Using areas of seafloor magnetic data, Steiner (1977) [16] calculated the average seafloor spreading rates for the past 5 million years to be approximately 96 mm/yr for the Pacific Ocean, 76 mm/yr for the Indian Ocean and 43 mm/yr for the Atlantic Ocean which, although not equatorially or meridionally aligned, approximate the presentday calculated rate of 140 mm/yr increase in equatorial circumference.

    For a hypothetical Earth increasing its radius as a function of a constant Earth mass, density (Figure 12, Curve B) is shown to decrease exponentially from a peak of approximately 290 grams/cm3 during the Precambrian, to a present value of 5.52 grams/cm3 and approaches zero at about 300 million years in the future.

    Assuming that the universal gravitation G is constant, or near constant throughout Earth's history, surface gravity (Figure 12, Curve C) is shown to decrease exponentially from a peak value of approximately 138 metre sec-2 during the Precambrian, to 95 metre sec-2 during the Cambrian, 9.8 metre sec-2 during the present-day and approaches zero at about 300 million years in the future ...

    Graphs suggest that an increasing mass scenario is more representative of the planets within the present Solar System and qualifies the conclusions of Carey (1983) [13].

    Expanding Earth

    Pangea

    For a hypothetical Earth increasing its radius as a function of constant density, mass (Figure 12, Curve D) is shown to increase exponentially from approximately 1.1 x 1023 kilograms during the Precambrian, to a present value of 5.97 x 1024 kilograms and 190 x 1024 kilograms at about 300 million years in the future.

    Assuming that G is constant, or near constant throughout Earth's history, surface gravity (Figure 12, Curve F) is shown to increase exponentially from approximately 2.6 metre sec-2 during the Precambrian, to approximately 30 metre sec-2 at about 300 million years in the future.

    The kinematics of mass, density and surface gravity shown in Figure 12 represent end-points of possible causes of Earth expansion. Without additional cosmological constraints the exact kinematics, and hence cause of Earth expansion is, at this stage, indeterminate.

    At a constant mass, the Earth's density and surface gravity during the Precambrian is shown (Figure 12) to be excessively high when compared to the densities and surface gravity of the present Sun and outer planets of the Solar System. Carey concluded, because of the limitations of surface gravity in the past, there may be no alternative but to consider an exponential increase in Earth mass with time as the primary cause of increasing Earth radius.

    Assuming an increasing mass scenario, on an Expansion Tectonic Earth, surface gravity during the Precambrian Eras would be about one third of the present value and about one half of the present value during the Mesozoic Era. The Mesozoic Era of course was the Era of the dinosaurs, those very large, very long bodied creatures who could very well have benefited from a much lower surface gravity.

    Expanding Earth

    Dinosaur gravity

    Projecting an increasing Earth mass scenario to the future suggests that the Earth would then approach the size of Jupiter and Saturn within about 500 million years. During this interval of time the Earths' oceans, and the volatile elements presently retained in the crust and mantle, may simply evaporate to form a thick gaseous envelope or ring structure, similar to those of the present giant planets.

    This scenario would be subdued slightly if a density gradient were superimposed on the data, declining in time from higher rocky planet densities to lower giant gaseous planet densities. This increasing mass scenario then suggests that the transition from an inner rocky planet to a giant gaseous planet may be a natural evolutionary planetary process in our Solar System.

    If the Earth radius were increasing it would then seem that our Earth may be currently in a transitional phase, and is likely to end up as either another giant planet, or perhaps, as has been suggested by Carey, a "failed planet" such as the asteroid belt might resemble.

    Professor Carey therefore previously concluded from his own research that, because of the limitations shown from estimates of our ancient surface gravity, there may be no alternative but to consider an exponential increase in Earth mass with time, as both the primary cause and effect of Earth expansion.

    If we adopt this constant density and increasing mass scenario for the cause of an increasing Earth radius, as proposed by Carey, the present annual rates of increase in mass and surface gravity are then calculated to be:

    Mass

    dM/dt0 = 60 x 1012 tonnes/year

    Surface gravity

    dg/dt0 = 3.4 x 10-8 msec-2/year

    Without additional cosmological constraints the exact changes, and hence cause of increasing Earth mass at this stage cannot be determined with any degree of certainty. While an increase in Earth mass appears to be the most acceptable scenario by most researchers, it also begs the very pertinent, and natural question as to where did all this new matter come from?

    3. Proposed Causal Model for Earth Expansion

    Concerning the physical cause of Earth expansion Creer (1965) [20] professed that, "we should beware of rejecting the hypothesis of Earth expansion out of hand on grounds that no known sources of energy are adequate to explain the expansion process".

    Creer further considered that, "it may be fundamentally wrong to attempt to extrapolate the laws of physics as we know them today to times of the order of the age of the Earth and of the Universe". While Carey (1976) [21] stated that he "may not necessarily be expected to know" the cause of Earth expansion, since the answer can only be known "if all relevant fundamental physics are already known" which they clearly are not.

    These concerns remain equally true today since historically, in the evolution of knowledge, empirical phenomena have often been recognized long before their cause or reason has been fully understood. Most humans of course instinctively want to know, or at least comprehend a cause well before acknowledging any physical evidence. The recognition and introduction of Darwin's theory of evolution for instance, is a good example of our instinc- tive hesitation to change.

    The theory of Earth expansion was first proposed in the 1890s. Since then five main re-occurring themes for the cause of Earth expansion have been suggested. The potential causes of Earth expansion were investigated and extensively reviewed by Carey (1983) [13]. The themes considered include:

    1. A pulsating Earth, where cyclic expansion of the Earth opened the oceans and contractions caused orogenesis. This proposal failed to satisfy exponentially waxing expansion. Carey considered the theme to have arisen from a misconception that orogenesis implies crustal contraction and saw no compelling evidence for intermittent contractions of the Earth.

    2. Meteoric and asteroidal accretion. This was rejected by Carey as the primary cause of Earth expansion since expansion should then decrease exponentially with time. It also does not explain seafloor spreading.

    3. A constant Earth mass with phase changes of an originally super-dense core. Carey rejected this because he considered the theme to imply too large a surface gravity throughout the Precambrian and Palaeozoic Eons.

    4. A secular reduction of the universal gravitation constant, G. Such a decline of G was considered to cause expansion through release of elastic compression energy throughout the Earth and phase changes to lower densities in all shells. Carey again rejected this proposal as the main cause of expansion for three reasons:

    a) that surface gravity would have been unacceptably high;

    b) that the magnitude of expansion would probably be too small and;

    c) the arguments for a reduction in G were considered not to indicate an exponential rate of increase.

    5. A cosmological cause involving a secular increase in the mass of the Earth.

    Carey considered that the first four proposals for cause of Earth expansion are soundly based and may have contributed in part to an increase in Earth radius. Potential limitations on surface gravity in the past suggested to Carey that there may be no alternative but to consider an exponential increase of Earth mass with time as the main cause for expansion.

    Where the excess mass came from was considered at length and Carey suggested that new mass added to the Earth must occur deep within the core. The ultimate cause of Earth expansion must however be sought in conjunction with an explanation for the cosmological expansion of the Universe.

    The suggested proposed causal model for Expansion Tectonics (Figure 13), while still largely speculative is closely related to matter generation within a plasma dominated Universe. In plasma dominated Universe the Earth is under constant bombardment from space, especially from the Sun, with all the necessary components (anions and cations) necessary to reconstitute matter from its component parts penetrating deep within the Earth.

    The Earth, having a strong magnetic field, gathers more than sufficient fundamental particles to account for an increase in matter internally over billions of years. It is suggested that this new matter accumulates at the core-mantle interface and the increase in new volume results in swelling of the mantle.

    This proposal is borne out by seismic and tomographic evidence by others whereby the core-mantle interface is shown to be the most active part of the Earth's interior ...

    In this proposal, matter generation within the Earth's core is an ongoing process, resulting in mantle swell. Mantle swell is then manifested in the outer crust as crustal extension, and is currently occurring as extension along the mid-ocean-rift zones. It is speculated that this process may ultimately decay with time, depending on the evolution of the Sun, and may ultimately reverse the present exponential increase in Earth radius and cease expansion in the distant future.

    A Challenge to Physics

    While geology empirically demonstrates that the concept of an Earth increasing its radius with time is a viable tectonic process, the problem of where the excess matter comes from to increase Earth mass over time remains a very real enigma.

    This question continues to thwart any acceptance, or consideration of any form of Earth expansion, simply because no motor or mechanism for increase in Earth radius has been forthcoming. Why? Because the question has never been asked, and hence physics has never been required to take the problem seriously.

    The challenge I pose to physics is, disregarding the instinctual hesitation towards considering any form of increasing Earth radius scenario, especially with the amount of established research in support of Plate Tectonics, what mechanisms are available to explain the undeniable empirical geological evidence?

    4. Conclusion

    Expanding Earth

    From Pangea Earth to Today's Earth

    Reconstructions of oceanic and continental geology on models of an Expansion Tectonic Earth demonstrate that crustal plates can be latitudinally and longitudinally constrained with only one plate fit-option on an Earth at reduced radii. Post-Triassic reconstructions of crustal plates constrained by seafloor mapping consistently show a plate fit-together at better than 99% fit for all plates.

    Mathematical modeling of crustal surface area data provides a means to accurately qualify a rate of change of Earth radius from the Archaean to Recent. The Earth is shown to be undergoing an exponential increase in radius, commencing from a primordial Earth of approximately 1700 kilometers radius during the Early Archaean.

    The current rate of increase in Earth radius is calculated to be 22 millimetres per year. Extrapolation of radius to the future suggests that the Earth will increase to the size of Jupiter within approximately 500 million years.

    Despite the enigmatic origin for the excess matter required for expansion, global geological and geophysical data quantify and substantiate an Archaean to Recent Earth expansion process. It is concluded that this cannot be mere coincidence. In order to accept Expansion Tectonics as a viable global tectonic process, we must, however be prepared to remove the constant Earth radius premise from tectonic studies, thus encouraging the physical sciences to promote active research into the motor and mechanism behind Earth expansion.

    References

    [ 1 ] CAREY S. W. 1958. The tectonic approach to continental drift. In: Continental Drift, a Symposium. University of Tasmania, Hobart, 177-355.

    [ 2 ] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roberto_Mantovani

    [ 3 ] LINDERMAN B. 1927. Kettengebirge, Kontinentale Zerspaltung und Erdexpansion. Gustav Fischer Publishers, Jena. 186p.

    [ 4 ] HILGENBERG O. C. 1933. Vom wachsenden Erdball. Selbstverlag, Berlin.

    [ 5 ] VOGEL K. 1983. Global models and Earth expansion. In: Carey S.W. ed. Expanding Earth Symposium, Sydney, 1981. University of Tasmania, 17-27.

    [ 6 ] KOZIAR J. 1980. Ekspansja den oceanicznych I jej zwiazek z hipotaza ekspansji Ziemi. Sprawozdania Wroclawskiego Towarzystwa Naukowego, 35, 13-19.

    [ 7 ] CGMW & UNESCO 1990. Geological Map of the World. Commission for the Geological Map of the World, Paris.

    [ 8 ] BLINOV V. F. 1983. Spreading rate and rate of expansion of the Earth. In: Carey S.W. ed. Expanding Earth Symposium, Sydney, 1981. University of Tasmania, 297-304.

    [ 9 ] MAXLOW J. 2001. Quantification of an Archaean to Recent Earth Expansion Process Using Global Geological and Geophysical Data Sets. Unpublished PhD thesis, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia. http://adt.curtin.edu.au/theses/available/adtWCU20020117.145715

    [ 10 ] BLATT H. & JONES R. L. 1975. Proportions of exposed igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Geological Society of America Bulletin 86, 1085-1088.

    [ 11 ] ETHERIDGE M. A., RUTLAND R. W. R. & WYBORN L. A. I. 1987. Orogenesis and tectonic processes in the Early to Middle Proterozoic of Northern Australia. In: Kröner A. ed. Proterozoic lithospheric evolution, Geodynamics Series 17, Geological Society of America, 131-147.

    [ 12 ] VOGEL K. 1990. The expansion of the Earth - an alternative model to the plate tectonics theory. In: Critical Aspects of the Plate Tectonics Theory; Volume II, Alternative Theories. Theophrastus Publishers, Athens, Greece, 14-34.

    [ 13 ] CAREY S. W. 1983. Earth expansion and the null Universe. In: Carey S.W. ed. Expanding Earth Symposium, Sydney, 1981. University of Tasmania, 365-372.

    [ 14 ] CAREY S. W. 1988. Theories of the Earth and Universe: A History of Dogma in the Earth Sciences. Stanford University press, Stanford, California.

    [ 15 ] CAREY S. W. 1996. Earth, Universe, Cosmos. University of Tasmania, Hobart.

    [ 16 ] STEINER J. 1977. An expanding Earth on the basis of sea-floor spreading and subduction rates. Geology 5, 313-318.

    [ 17 ] GARFUNKEL Z. 1975. Growth, shrinking, and long-term evolution of plates and their implications for the flow pattern in the mantle. Journal of Geophysical Research 80, 4425-4432.

    [ 18 ] PARSONS B. 1982. Causes and consequences of the relation between area and age of the ocean floor. Journal of Geophysical Research 87, 289-302.

    [ 19 ] ROBAUDO S. & HARRISON C. G. A. 1993. Plate tectonics from SLR and VLBI global data. In: Smith D. E., & Turcotte D. L. eds. Contributions of Space Geodesy to Geodynamics: Crustal Dynamics. Geodynamics Series, Volume 23. American Geophysical Union.

    [ 20 ] CRExpanding EarthR K. M. 1965. An Expanding Earth. Nature 4971 Vol 205, 539-544. [ 21 ] CAREY S. W. 1976. The Expanding Earth. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

    -------------

    COMMENTARY

    www.aoi.com.au/bcw/FixedorExpandingEarth.htm

    Fixed-Earth and Expanding-Earth Theories -- Time for a Paradigm Shift? -- Version 2

    David Noel

    Ben Franklin Centre for Theoretical Research

    PO Box 27, Subiaco, WA 6008, Australia.

    In my view, it would not be unfair to characterise the Subduction and Convection-Cell hypothesis as the 'Phlogiston Theory of the Twentieth Century'. Maybe OK as a first try, but stack it up against actual evidence, and the concept is immediately invalidated.

    According to the hypothesis, material 'subducted' into the convection cells is later recycled to rise up as new ocean floor at the mid-ocean ridges. If this were really the case, then the composition of the new rocks might be expected to vary, according to the nature of the crustal material recycled. In reality, as Ollier points out, all new mid-ocean ridge material is basalt of uniform composition ...

    Terranes

    One of the intriguing discoveries of recent years has been that of terranes. Near-coastal areas of the larger continents, such as western North America or eastern Asia, have been found to be made up of a collage or patchwork of small areas (a few kilometers on a side) drawn from vastly different geological types and ages.

    As an example, one such terrane is said to have originated close to the equator, moving north and splitting in half, with one half found in Idaho and its identical twin ending up in Alaska. Fixed-radius Earth theory has no explanation for such occurrences. In Expanding Earth theory, these terranes are merely micro-domains and their rapid and chaotic movement is only to be expected.

    Ocean trenches

    In Fixed-radius Earth theory, the deep ocean trenches are regarded as sites where excess surface created by seafloor spreading is disposed of, 'subducting' under the adjacent continents ... We have already seen that when considering the masses of material involved, this explanation is logically unsound.

    Further discrediting of the idea comes from consideration of assumed 'subducting' ocean trench lengths and their positions on the Earth. The total length of all 'subduction' zones is only one-third the total length of spreading zones . The South Atlantic Ocean has an active spreading zone, but no ocean trenches or other identified 'subduction' zones running along the coasts of Africa or South America to receive excess material.

    Moreover, the actual conformations of deep ocean trenches are not in accord with what might be expected from the Fixed-radius Earth assumptions. They are up to 11 km deep (in the Marianas Trench, in the western Pacific) and according to Hayford the slope of their sides are mostly at 5 degrees from vertical, both on the landward and seaward sides, and any sediment beds they contain are horizontal.

    From the rock mechanics viewpoint, it doesn't really make sense if you are pushing one mass of rock against another for a gap or trench to form between them. Actual ocean trenches show no evidence at all of massive amounts of material being tipped down them from one side, and if such was occurring, one might assume that they would all have been filled up during past geological ages.

    In considering how ocean trenches might have originated, Fixed-radius Earth theory has no explanation. In Expanding Earth theory, ocean trenches are a natural consequence of expansion of the parasolid interior under the crust, as also are rift valleys and mid-ocean ridges ...

    The Mariana Trench website ... does suggest that ocean trenches are perhaps the consequence of an abyssal plain pulling away from a continental mass -- just as Expanding Earth would expect, and the opposite of what Fixed-radius Earth suggests.

    Expanding Earth theory sees the movement of parts of the Crust and Upper Mantle as of two main types:

    Type 1. Parasolid rearrangement. This is essentially the very slow rearrangement of bulk rock under the influence of pressure and gravity, similar to (but perhaps with a different underlying mechanism from) the flow of an extremely viscous liquid.

    In Expanding Earth theory, parasolid rearrangement is seen as the main mechanism acting within the Crust, upper Mantle and major continental and seafloor segments, including continental shields and massifs and the material underlying these. It is what keeps the Earth's shape essentially spherical over geological ages as its inner components undergo expansion and change underneath the land. The mechanism may generate heat, but not enough to lead to local 'geothermal' phenomena ...

    Type 2. Local adjustment. These activities are on a smaller and more local scale, and include the matters currently treated by rock mechanics, physics of (perhaps anisotropic) solids, and the sciences of seismology and volcanology. Often they generate considerable heat, and are responsible for most 'geothermal' phenomena, including volcanos and production of igneous and metamorphic rocks ...

    Tilted rock strata may have a tendency to slip along a particular layer, and friction in this layer can then lead to partial or complete liquefaction in the layer, as occurs at the base of glaciers.

    Rocks containing large obvious crystals, such as granites, are usually considered to have solidified slowly. However the increase in ice crystal size in flowing glaciers suggests that the same phenomenon in typical rocks may have similar origins ...

    Computer modelling of Type 1 and Type 2 processes could yield, for the first time, workable predictions of where earthquakes were due to appear.

    [The land area problem]

    The Fixed-radius Earth model contains truly major deficiencies in explaining seafloor-spreading data. Because it assumes Pangaea (a combination of current land areas, amounting to some 30% of the current Earth surface) existed on a globe of the present size, it necessarily assumes that the remaining 70% of the Pangaean Earth's surface was a huge sea, Panthalassa, enclosing the single continent.

    We have already seen that all the present deep oceans are less than 200 million years old. Therefore, if the Fixed-radius Earth theory was correct, more than 70% of the current Earth's surface must have disappeared without leaving any trace during the last 200 million years ...

    A simple illustration of [the current Fixed-radius Earth paradigm's] falsity is as follows:

    The Pacific Ocean today occupies about 33% of the Earth's surface, and has an average depth of about 4 km. The current land areas amount to about 30 % of the surface, and have an average elevation of about 700 metres.

    So if just the material from formation of the Pacific was pushed under and [was] evenly distributed under all the current land areas, these would have an average elevation of at least 4000 metres. If the material from the other deep oceans was added, it would bring the average elevation up to about 9000 metres. This is clearly not the case.

    When 'spreading' site lengths are totalled up, this value is some three times greater than the length of assumed compensating 'subduction' sites which are supposed to receive the ... material from spreading.

    In Expanding Earth theory, on the other hand, while Pangaea existed, it was wrapped around the whole surface of a much smaller globe, with around half the present radius. Seafloor spreading then appears as a natural expression of Earth expansion, with no need to call on dubious ideas such as subduction to explain observed data.

    ----------------

    ----------------

    THERE IS NO PEAK OIL

    www.sciencenews.org/articles/20080202/fob1.asp

    NEWS ARTICLE from Science News, 2-2-08, by Sid Perkins

    Vol. 173, No. 5, p. 67,

    [Inorganic Oil]

    ``The Lost City hydrothermal field, which sits on the side of an undersea mountain about 2,500 kilometers east of Bermuda, was discovered in December 2000 (SN: 7/14/01, p. 21). Unlike most hydrothermal vents, which crop up along midocean ridges where tectonic plates spread to form new seafloor, those of the Lost City lie about 15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on ocean crust that's about 1.5 million years old.

    Accordingly, the chemistry of the fluids surging from the Lost City vents differs radically from that found at other hydrothermal sites, says Giora Proskurowski, a geochemist at Woods Hole (Mass.) Oceanographic Institution ...

    Lost City fluids ... contain small quantities of hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, and butane. A number of clues suggests that those substances, whose natural production usually results from the long-term heating of sediment rich in organic matter, were actually produced by inorganic chemical reactions, Proskurowski says.

    First, the rocks beneath the Lost City don't contain large amounts of organic matter.

    Second, the hydrothermal fluids are rich in dissolved hydrogen but contain a much lower than normal concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide. This suggests that what are called Fischer-Tropsch inorganic chemical reactions, which convert carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen into hydrocarbons, generated the substances.

    Finally, the proportion of the carbon-13 isotope in the hydrocarbons found in the Lost City fluids drops as the size of the hydrocarbon molecule grows, a trend opposite that found in sediment-derived hydrocarbons but characteristic of those generated by inorganic reactions, Proskurowski and his colleagues report in the Feb. 1 [2008] Science.

    Although some types of microorganisms that inhabit the mineral chimneys in the Lost City may have generated a portion of the fluids' dissolved methane, none found there could have produced the ethane, butane, or other organic compounds in the vents' brew. Finding butane in the fluids is particularly important, because that hydrocarbon is a building block for some of the organic substances found in cell membranes, Proskurowski notes ...

    Robert M. Hazen, a geophysicist at the Carnegie Institution of Washington (D.C.), agrees: "This is an exciting finding ... that demonstrates there are so many ways to make hydrocarbons in an abiogenic setting." ...''

    --------------

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_biogenic_petroleum_theory

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    ``Deep biogenic petroleum theory

    The deep biotic petroleum theory, similar to the abiogenic petroleum origin hypothesis, holds that not all petroleum deposits within the Earth's rocks can be explained purely according to the orthodox view of petroleum geology .

    This theory is strictly different from abiogenic oil in that the role of deep-dwelling microbes is a biological source for oil which is not of a sedimentary origin and is not sourced from surface carbon ...

    Deep microbes

    Microbial life has been discovered 4.2 kilometers deep in Alaska and 5.2 kilometers deep in Sweden.

    Methanophile organisms have been known for some time, and recently it was found that microbial life in Yellowstone National Park is based on hydrogen metabolism. Other deep and hot extremophile organisms continue to be discovered.

    ----------------------

    www.searchanddiscovery.net/documents/abstracts/2005research_calgary/abstracts/extended/hunt/hunt.htm

    Hydrides and Anhydrides by C. Warren Hunt, 1119 Sydenham Road SW, CALGARY, ALBERTA, CANADA T2T 0T5, Tel. (403)-244-3341, Fax (403) 244-2834, E-mail: archeanc@telusplanet.net

    ``Hydrogen being 90% or more of all matter in the Universe, must have been abundantly present in the formation of the early earth. The consensus among scientists has been that most primordial hydrogen was expelled as the earth accreted. New evidence challenges the consensus raises questions as to the validity of other long-held geological concepts.

    The new evidence involves the behavior of hydrogen nucleii, which at pressures characteristic of mantle depths have shed their electrons and inject themselves inside the first electron rings of metal atoms. Thus sequestered within the earth, hydrogen may comprise as much as 30-40 percent of total earth mass today.

    Hydrogen penetration into metals was demonstrated by Vladimir N. Larin, a geologist, whose project over the last 34 years has been research in the USSR and FSU on sources of natural hydrogen. Three major effects result from the phenomenon: (1) transmutation, (2) densification, and (3) fluidization ...

    From this data it is easily shown that the excess core and mantle density above that of the crust can be attributed to injected hydrogen, and the density differences between inner core, outer core, and lower mantle can be treated as phase effects. In this scenario the idea of an iron core is superfluous.

    V.N. Larin demonstrated the fluidity of titanium hydride for this writer by setting a ruby in plasticized titanium intermetal. Under reduced pressure the hydrogen bled off, allowing the metal to recrystallize and leave the ruby set firmly in metallic titanium.

    The potassium and titanium behaviors are not unique. All elements but noble gases form hydrides ...

    The hydrides of silicon, the silanes (SiH4, Si2H6, Si3H8, Si4H10, etc.) are of special interest. Gases at standard conditions, they react vigorously with water, producing quartz, volcanic ash, and rock-forming minerals, depending on depth, pressure and the admixture of other metal hydrides. The high mobility of silane explains the mode of transfer of silicon from the interior to the oxidic crust. Crust then is the residue after silane and intermetal oxidation and release of hydrogen, which eventually escapes into space.

    Carbon ... probably is prominent in the form of carbides in the interior. Its primary hydride form, methane (CH4), although energy-laden like silane, behaves quite differently in three important contrasting ways. First, it does not react with water; second, its combustion products are only gases; and third, it enables the biosphere.

    Where silane is stalled in the crust by reacting with water, methane and hydrogen released by its partial oxidation proceed upward in fracture pathways.

    Methane and hydrogen seep into deep, shield mines and through porous members of sedimentary series. Both are major constituents of fluid inclusions in sub-oceanic basalts as well as in shield granites. Their migration is differentially impeded due to their different molecular sizes. Methane may be trapped temporarily, while hydrogen escapes. Both enter the atmosphere worldwide on a large scale.

    Thus the hydridic earth image comprises a mobile inner geosphere of highly-reduced, dense, intermetals and carbides, an outer geosphere of oxidic rock that has accumulated incrementally through geological time, and a transient liquid-gas envelope. The image implies a core that is neither iron nor very hot, because the heat source for endogeny is primarily not primordial heat but the chemical energy released in the upper mantle and lower crust, near the crust-mantle boundary by hydride oxidation.

    Hydrocarbons other than methane are partially oxidized carbon forms, and thus unlikely to occur in any form but methane in the earth's interior where extreme reducing conditions prevail. When methane rises to outer crust levels from the interior, its chemical energy is available to metabolize bacteria and archaea that live there in total darkness at elevated temperatures. They get that energy by stripping hydrogen from the methane and oxidizing it metabolically.

    When bacteria and archaea strip hydrogen from methane, they create 'anhydrides' of methane, CH3, CH2, etc. Two CH3s combine to make C2H6, ethane; two CH3s and one CH2 make C3H8, propane, etc. The process is known on the surface, where outcrops of petroliferous strata sometimes are sealed by bacterially produced tar seals behind which live oil has accumulated. In this case, bacteria have stripped hydrogen from live oil, rendering it immobile.

    Anhydride theory merely extrapolates the process backward to explain stripping of methane, the lowest carbon numbered hydrocarbon. Petroleum can be interpreted as degenerated methane, a product of the biosphere. Petroleum produced by bacterial stripping of methane is, a mixture of anhydrides of methane, an organic product produced from inorganic methane.

    Coal and oil shales are also anhydride products. In peat and kerogen-rich shales, partially oxidized carbon is present that has lost electrons and thus carries positive charges. By contrast, the carbon in methane that effuses from the highly reduced earth interior has acquired electrons and is negatively charged. Opposite charges cause capture of effusing methane by peat and kerogen ...

    The terminal anhydride, pure carbon, the main component of the purest coals and asphaltites, and protein molecules (porphyrins and others) that are found in petroleum and coal are molecular residues of organic origin.

    The fact that coal and oil shales have more carbon and hydrogen than their peat and fossil predecessors is clear evidence that fossils cannot fully explain their origins. These high carbon and hydrogen contents of oil shales and coals require abiogenic additions, whereas organic molecules require organic provenance. Methane and petroleum found in coal seams and organic shales should be seen as evidence of methane capture, not methane generation.

    The topology of petroleum occurrence is a further defeat for the argument in favour of either an exclusively organic or exclusively abiogenic origin for petroleum. If oil were either rising from primordial sources in the earth's interior or created in 'oil windows' by catagenesis, the more mobile fractions would escape from the depths and be found more abundantly near the surface and less mobile fractions, low gravity oils, would be present at depth. Exactly the opposite is the norm. Methane gas, the most mobile hydrocarbon, is more abundant with depth, worldwide; and tars, the least mobile, are most abundant at and near the surface ...

    Working backwards through the above points, we can say that:

    Topologies of hydrocarbon occurrences indicate that methane effuses from the interior, not petroleum; ...

    and that the discovery that hydrogen nuclei under pressure penetrate atomic shells of metals, transmuting the metals to intermetals, densifying them, and fluidizing them, creates an entirely new geological picture of the earth's interior, of endogeny, and of the mode by which the crust was created [and also of the almost infinite supply of petroleum and methane waiting to be found.] ''

    -------------

    www.engdahl.oilgeopolitics.net/Geopolitics___Eurasia/Peak_Oil___Russia/peak_oil___russia.html

    ARTICLE By F William Engdahl, September 14, 2007

    ``... The 2003 arrest of Russian Mikhail Khodorkovsky, of Yukos Oil, took place just before he could sell a dominant stake in Yukos to ExxonMobil after a private meeting with Dick Cheney. Had Exxon got the stake they would have control of the world's largest resource of geologists and engineers trained in the abiotic techniques of deep drilling ...

    Why then the high-risk war to control Iraq? For a century US and allied Western oil giants have controlled world oil via control of Saudi Arabia or Kuwait or Nigeria. Today, as many giant fields are declining, the companies see the state-controlled oilfields of Iraq and Iran as the largest remaining base of cheap, easy oil ...

    Perhaps in some decades Western geologists will rethink their mythology of fossil origins and realize what the Russians have known since the 1950's. In the meantime Moscow holds a massive energy trump card.''

    ------------------

    See Part 1

    ------------------

    [Nymex oil futures peaked at an intraday high of $78.40 on July 14 [2006] but averaged $66.25 for the year, compared with $56.70 in 2005 and $41.47 in 2004 ...

    ------------------

    NEWS ARTICLE from The Plain Dealer, 10-17-07, by John Wilen, Associated Press

    ``NEW YORK -- Oil futures rallied to a new intraday record above $88 a barrel on Tuesday [10-16-07] amid concerns about disruptions to Middle Eastern crude supplies ... Traders are concerned that a Turkish incursion into Iraq in search of Kurdish rebels could disrupt crude supplies from northern Iraq ...

    Light, sweet crude for November delivery rose $1.48 to settle at a record $87.61 a barrel. Earlier, prices rose as high as $88.20, a trading record ...''

    ---------------

    NEWS ARTICLE from The Plain Dealer, 10-19-07,

    by John Wilen, Associated Press

    ``NEW YORK -- Oil prices surpassed $90 a barrel for the first time Thursday [10-18-07] ... Light, sweet crude for November delivery hit $90.02 ... Thursday was the fifth day in a row crude prices have set new records ...''

    {The Oil Gang goes laughing to the bank.}]

    For more on "There is No Peak Oil" see

    www.avonhistory.org/mil3/peakoil7.htm

    Top -- Home

    chronicle.northcoastnow.com/2014/03/19/malaysia-files-deleted-pilots-flight-simulator/

    [Flight 370 and the missing nuke]

    [Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 with 239 people aboard disappeared March 8, 2014]

    Files were deleted from pilot's flight simulator

    March 19, 2014 by Associated Press

    KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia (AP) -- Investigators are trying to restore files deleted last month from the home flight simulator of the pilot aboard the missing Malaysian plane to see if they shed any light on the disappearance, Malaysia's defense minister said Wednesday.

    Hishammuddin Hussein told a news conference that the pilot, Capt. Zaharie Ahmad Shah, is considered innocent until proven guilty of any wrongdoing, and that members of his family are cooperating in the investigation. Files containing records of simulations carried out on the program were deleted Feb. 3, Malaysian police chief Khalid Abu said ...

    Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 with 239 people aboard disappeared March 8 on a night flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing. Malaysian authorities have not ruled out any possible explanations, but have said the evidence so far suggests the flight was deliberately turned back across Malaysia to the Strait of Malacca, with its communications systems disabled. They are unsure what happened next and why.

    Investigators have identified two giant arcs of territory spanning the possible positions of the plane about 7½ hours after takeoff, based on its last faint signal to a satellite -- an hourly 'handshake' signal that continues even when communications are switched off. The arcs stretch up as far as Kazakhstan in central Asia and down deep into the southern Indian Ocean ...

    Indonesian Defense Minister Purnomo Yusgiantoro said Indonesia military radar didn't pick up any signs of Flight 370 on the day the plane went missing. He said Malaysia had asked Indonesia to intensify the search in its assigned zone in the Indian Ocean west of Sumatra, but said his air force was strained in the task ...

    Malaysian investigators say the plane departed 12:41 a.m. on March 8 and headed northeast toward Beijing over the Gulf of Thailand, but that it turned back after the final words were heard from the cockpit. Malaysian military radar data places the plane west of Malaysia in the Strait of Malacca at 2:14 a.m.

    Thailand divulged new radar data Tuesday that appeared to corroborate Malaysian data showing the plane crossing back across Peninsular Malaysia.

    The military in the Maldives, a remote Indian Ocean island nation, confirmed to Malaysia that reports of a sighting of the plane by villagers there were 'not true,' the Malaysian defense minister said.

    German insurance company Allianz said Wednesday that it has made initial payments in connection with the missing plane. Spokesman Hugo Kidston declined to say how much had been paid, but said it was in line with contractual obligations when an aircraft is reported as missing.

    -------------

    COMMENTARY

    Commentator 1 wrote:

    This author says that the [fire] hypothesis has to be wrong:

    www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2014/03/18/mh370_disappearance_chris_goodfellow_s_theory_about_a_fire_and_langkawi.html

    The airplane continued to fly for many hours after the event that caused the IFF [transponder] to go off and the airplane to deviate from the assigned flight path. I assume that "event" was a pilot action, but whatever it was, hours elapsed after that and the plane flew for thousands of miles.

    Therefore it could not be a case of the pilots being incapacitated or dead. They could not have changed course the way they did if they were incapacitated. After it deviated the first time, it flew a complicated course including zig-zagging. Again, no autopilot would do that.

    It is extremely unlikely that the radio, IFF [transponder] and the emergency radio beacon in the tail (SARSAT) were destroyed by a fire, yet the aircraft could still be controlled and flown for hours. Any fire bad enough to destroy all communications would also crash the plane ...

    --------------

    Commentator 3 wrote on 3-19-14:

    The latest twist on this story is that a search of the Pilot's home found a flight simulator, and the flight data that had been erased from the simulator indicated that the pilot had been training to land on Diego Garcia Island in the Indian Ocean.

    Here is another story on that connection, notably that this airport has hangars for B-52s (could hide a Boeing 777 from satellites) and was used to bomb areas in Afghanistan:

    abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2014/03/island-of-diego-garcia-factors-into-mysterious-malaysia-flight-theories/

    It gets weirder and weirder since this implies that the Pilot and probably the copilot as well - took the plane to 45,000 feet with the intention of killing all of the passengers and flight crew that did not have access to oxygen in the cockpit, and then headed to Diego Garcia. It also implies US complicity - to land on a US base and avoid the News getting out.

    Plus the Flight 370 was seen by local fishermen flying over the Maldives, which is on the flight path to Diego Garcia. This has of course been disputed by Officials of the Maldives.

    metro.co.uk/2014/03/18/flight-mh370-residents-on-remote-island-in-maldives-saw-jet-matching-missing-malaysia-airlines-planes-description-4640688/

    Thus, if a rogue element in the CIA was behind this act somehow, it would mean that something very valuable was aboard that airplane and not a passenger, since they would have all perished, most likely.

    Or else, someone in the US military is out to trigger war, possibly in the Middle East. The only apparent rationale for that is that someone in the Pentagon or NSA thinks that the USA can avoid an even greater tragedy by starting a local War now, possibly between Iran and Israel.

    One way to do that would be to load a "missing nuke" aboard a repainted Boeing 777, now El Al 666, with which to eliminate Iran's nuclear weapon program, and blame Israel at the same time.

    Makes a good plot for the next Bond movie if nothing else.

    -----------

    Commentator 4 wrote:

    As this report says, it's in Pakistan:

    www.mediaite.com/tv/fmr-gen-doubles-down-on-claim-malaysian-plane-could-be-in-pakistan-to-be-used-for-terror/

    The USAF [Air Force] stood down on Sept. 14, 2007 possibly to find the missing nuke. Here is a discussion:

    www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread302187/pg1

    -----------

    Commentator 3 wrote:

    OK - The plot thickens but not all the details.

    Could not Air Force Gen ... be a shill and actually be a part of the scheme (or a patsy)?

    When he speculates that the missing airliner had been flown to Pakistan, to be used as a delivery vehicle for nuclear explosives by terrorists, isn't that exactly what what schemers would want the world to believe? And it could be true as of today, to wit:

    Consider those hangars: yes they would leave the tail section of the Boeing 777 open to view, but there is a fix for that. By now, the plane [could have] been repainted, refueled, and could actually be in Pakistan, just as the good General sez.

    The stop in Diego Garcia was merely to refuel, repaint, ditch about 237 dead corpses, remove the suspicious cargo, load the Minot nuke in the Cargo bay and continue on as if it was now a PIA airplane, returning from a recent overhaul.

    I'm still waiting for the call from Hollywood with the screenplay advance

    ---------

    Commentator 3 wrote on 3-17-14:

    Did the missing jetliner fly into an area controlled by the Taliban? Apparently there was enough fuel. and, well, no better explanation has surfaced.

    Over a week after the Boeing 777 vanished without a trace, The Independent reports that Malaysian authorities are seeking diplomatic permission to investigate a theory that the plane was flown to a Taliban stronghold ... apparently they heard that it avoided military radar by "shadowing" another commercial flight.

    keithledgerwood.tumblr.com/post/79838944823/did-malaysian-airlines-370-disappear-using-sia68-sq68

    But to backtrack a bit - it is amazing that the Press has all but forgotten another conspiracy - that six nuclear cruise missiles left from Minot ND in 2007 and only five arrived at Barksdale AFB in La [near New Orleans].

    Seems like that would have been an ongoing story over the intervening years, that a nuclear weapon was essentially "lost" in transit in the USA.

    Some ... have said all along that the missing nuke was sold by disgruntled Minot airmen to the highest bidder in a home grown conspiracy (this time not involving spooks). There were many mysterious deaths of soldiers who could have been part of a putative plot stretching from N Dakota to who knows, maybe Kyrgyzstan.

    baltimorechronicle.com/2007/112107Lindorff.shtml

    The disappearance of the Malaysian Flight 370 has now linked up with this incident to cause the same ... to wonder if there is a master illuminati plan, and if the same group that purchased the Minot nuke latter arranged this mysterious disappearance. Since a cruise missile, as a terrorist weapon, could not really be used without cooperation at an impossibly high level in the Air Force, it requires another kind of vehicle to transport it into infamy ...

    For instance, any nuke could be loaded onto a freshly painted Boeing 777 which looked to all the World like a real El Al passenger jet. Has an airline jet ever been shot down? Truth is stranger than fiction and in Hebrew (vav vav vav) is 666 but looks a lot like Boeing 777. Far-fetched, indeed, but no more so than the events leading up to 9/11 [2001]. BTW, one other bit of Taliban gloating was when the Kyrgyz parliament voted in favor of ending the lease agreement with the US for use of Manas air base. Maybe they found a higher paying customer?

    When will this tragedy be planned to take place, you might ask? A wild guess is Land Day (March 30, 2014)

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_Day

    But it's hard to hide a Boeing 777 from the prying eye of satellites for several weeks, even at Kyrgyzstan Manas air base. Matter of fact, isn't this it?

    tinyurl.com/pz35uwb

    -------------

    Commentator 3 wrote:

    BTW - the next episode - possibly happening this afternoon, if they follow our original script - will be the one where most of the bodies and a lot of luggage from Flight 370 will turn up in the Indian Ocean, about as far away from Diego Garcia as possible - so as not to raise eyebrows even further.

    ------------

    Commentator 3 wrote on 3-20-14:

    Video - well worth watching:

    dailycaller.com/2014/03/19/retired-air-force-general-stand-by-theory-malaysian-airlines-flight-could-have-landed-in-pakistan/

    Retired Air Force General ... isn't backing away from his prior assertion ... that the missing Malaysian Airlines flight has landed in Pakistan; and he says his theory is based on more than mere conjecture.

    In fact, he implies that Boeing knows that it landed in Pakistan, which, it should be noted, does not mean that it did not stop somewhere else fist, even if it did land in Pakistan later.

    Yet, the Aussies say there is passenger plane debris in the South Indian Ocean. And yes that will be confirmed today.

    Of course, all of this is in the screenplay already. The Boeing 777 first lands in Diego Garcia to refuel, repaint, remove the contraband cargo headed for China, transfer the bodies and luggage to another airplane and continue on to Pakistan.

    Then the corpses and luggage were placed aboard a derelict military reconnaissance plane, on a one-way mission to the South Indian Ocean.

    The only problem will be that some of the second plane did not sink as planned, so the Malaysian victims and luggage will turn up, along with airplane parts from a different airplane.

    Of course the explanation will then be hastily concocted that this airplane was a spotter-plane which had been sent from Diego Garcia to help find the passenger plane ...

    [An alternative is to drop two pingers bolted together, with the expected battery life, into the Indian Ocean where Flight 370 supposedly ran out of fuel; claim that the debris had been blown away by a storm; detect pings from the two airplane black boxes; then claim that Flight 370 had been generally located and that it would take a few years to survey the ocean floor and find the exact location.]

    Commentator X wrote:

    www.dailypaul.com/314371/rolls-royce-furthers-malaysian-plane-mystery-engine-data-showed-plane-had-flown-for-four-hours-more-than-thought

    Wild goose chase? 04/07/2014

    Seeing if they could pull it off? A month of chasing a box and pings that could be totally a fabricated chase ...

    Captain says good night and signs out. Moments later, Captain to co-captain. "We seem to have lost control of the plane. It seems to be flying itself."

    The most advanced weapon and semiconductor research on the planet [is] being done by Freescale -- (formerly a division of Motorola) and part of the Carlyle Group (comprising one of the most sinister military industrial entities on the globe) -- [which] has numerous high level people on this plane.

    Nighttime flight set up perfect to attempt the first electronic hijacking of a commercial flight, simply turning it into a remote controlled drone ...

    For more on Carlyle see

    www.avonhistory.org/mil3/knew.htm#n3

    www.avonhistory.org/mil3/t8b.htm

    www.avonhistory.org/mil3/bush08.htm#1995

    1998 George H. W. Bush became a board member of the Carlyle Group

    For more on how the CIA makes money on Wall Street, see "Crossing the Rubicon: The Decline of the American Empire at the End of the Age of Oil," by Michael C. Ruppert

    www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/index.shtml

    [Load the missing Barksdale nuke on the flight 370 jet, repainted with El Al colors, and fly it with drone technology into Iran.]

    Top -- Home

    The Flaperon Mystery

    www.nbcnews.com/storyline/missing-jet/mh370-flaperon-confirmed-first-debris-missing-malaysia-flight-n421061

    Sep 3 2015

    MH370 Flaperon Is Confirmed as First Debris from Missing Malaysia Flight

    by Alastair Jamieson and Jake Cigainero

    PARIS, France -- The Boeing 777 wing part found on the remote Indian Ocean island of La Reunion is from missing flight MH370, French authorities said Thursday after almost one month of forensic analysis.

    Investigators were finally able to match a serial number on the flaperon, which washed shore on the French island on July 29 [2015] to parts used in the manufacture of the doomed Malaysia Airlines plane.

    The match was made following confirmation with a technician from Airbus Defense and Space (ADS-SAU) in Spain, which had made the part for Boeing ...

    ---------------------

    jeffwise.net/2015/10/09/the-flaperon-flotation-riddle/

    How the MH370 Flaperon Floated

    October 9, 2015 Posted in: Aviation

    By Jeff Wise

    Goose barnacles of the genus Lepas live exclusively on debris floating in the open ocean. Like other barnacles, their larvae spend the early part of their life swimming freely and then, in a final larval phase called the cyprid stage, search out a floating object on which to settle. Once they find a suitable object, says marine biologist Hank Carson.

    Cyprids in general do a fair bit of exploration for that cementation spot upon it, and with good reason: they'll spend the rest of their life there. Among the criteria they assess is how crowded a spot is, what the underlying substrate consists of, and how deep it is. Once satisfied, they glue their heads in place.

    In general Lepas barnacles like to spread out, and prefer a spot in the shade; they grow best away from the top of the water column. The reason is that close to the waterline, the rising and falling of waves periodically exposes the animals to the air, which interferes with their feeding ...

    Given a healthful environment, Lepas barnacles are notoriously fast-growing. The animals evolved to live on floating organic debris which after a time will break apart and sink, so time is of the essence.

    Whereas a species of goose barnacle that lives attached to a rock might take five years to reach sexual maturity, Lepas can do it in mere weeks. Japanese researcher Yoichi Yusa and his colleagues raised L. anserifera barnacles on tethered debris in a bay in Japan and found that "individuals on the average grew from 3 mm to more than 12 mm in capitulum length within 15 days and some were brooding." Thus, in less than a month after settling onto a piece of debris, Lepas can begin producing new generations to further their colonization ...

    If you think it's remarkable that the barnacles could have grown so huge in so little time, think again. "They grow really fast," says Cynthia Venn, a professor of oceanography and geology at Bloomsburg University in Pennsylvania. "That boat could get covered like that in six months, even." ...

    How Composite Objects Float

    According to reader Gavin Grimmer, The upper and lower surfaces of 777 flaperon are made of honeycombed composite presumably carbon fiber while the leading edge is mainly made from high tensile aluminum (2024-T3) apart from the fibreglass doubler. As a general rule, things made of composite material exhibit excellent buoyancy.

    The honeycomb materials which makes up most of the volume of the composite skin weighs only about 5 percent as much as water. Composite aircraft parts, therefore, tend to float fairly high in the water ...

    Mike Exner, one of the leading members of the Independent Group, conducted his own study of how the flaperon must have floated, building a model out of plastic poster board. After the interior compartment was flooded it settled into the water like this ...

    Now let's turn our attention to the 777 flaperon that washed up on a rocky beach on Reunion Island. ... The French authorities still haven't released a report detailing what they've learned about the piece, which now resides at a facility near Toulouse.

    Fortunately journalists took photographs of the flaperon from every angle shortly after it was discovered so that just by gathering publicly available images from the web we can assess the whole surface.

    As a general observation, we should note that the general shape of the flaperon is plank-like: rectangular when seen from above, with an airfoil cross section ...

    Note that the geometry of the piece is essentially planar, by which I mean that the faces do not bulge outwards. As a result, if one point on the edge of an end-cap is underwater, and the corresponding point on the edge of the far end-cap is under water, then the surface between them will be immersed, too ...

    To begin with, let's look at the outboard end cap. Barnacles, either individual or in clumps, are circled in green. I have not necessarily circled all of them, but at least those necessary to show the range of distribution ... Given that the end-cap is rimmed in barnacles, it must have all floated below the waterline.

    One could argue that a small portion of the strip marked with the red line could emerge from the water, but to my eye it lies between the outer edges of the barnacle clusters marked "A" and "B," which would not grow up out of the water.

    Moving on to the leading edge ... there is a substantial accumulation of barnacles on the outboard end of it, as well as some growth on the inboard side. Though there is little or no growth between these areas, that portion must have been submerged by virtue of lying between those two submerged areas ...

    Onward to the object's final face, the bottom surface. It does not exhibit the same degree of encrustation as we see on the top side. In Figure ..., below, we see the underside of the flaperon with the trailing edge at top. We've already noted the presence of barnacles on the bottom of the trailing edge and the bottom of the inboard end cap ...

    Barnacle growth is much less profuse on the bottom than it is on the trailing edge, but there are enough individuals present on this portion to suggest that the entire bottom edge of the outboard end cap must have been submerged. So, therefore, must have the entire underside ...

    The contrast between the Reunion flaperon and other floating debris we've looked at is quiet stark. The piece that came off MH370 does not have a Lepas line. There is no significant area that could have protruded above the waterline. The entire surface resembles the deeply submerged areas seen on the other flotsam.

    This fact evidently did not escape the French investigators who took custody of the piece. On August 21 [2015] the French news outlet La Depeche reported in August that "According to a Toulouse aeronautics expert who requested anonymity, the element of the wing would not have floated for several months at the water's surface but would have drifted underwater a few meters deep." ...

    This seems a reasonable assessment to Venn, based on the distribution of barnacles visible in photographs of the flaperon. "I think it was probably floating just barely subsurface," she says.

    This presents something of a paradox. "It is very hard to build something that will float slightly below the surface," wrote David Griffin, an oceanographer with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), in an email. "The probability that an aircraft part does this is miniscule. The only way it can do this is if some of the object breaks the surface. If it does not break the surface AT ALL it must sink."

    One could just about imagine that, by sheer good luck, the flaperon might have wound up taking just enough water to give it an overall density almost exactly that of seawater, so that it floated with perhaps a minuscule portion above the water. But such a situation would not be stable.

    Objects floating with only very slightly positive buoyancy can be pushed below the surface by the action of large waves, says Sean Kery, a hydronamicist at CSC Defense Group who has extensive experience modeling the impact of waves on floating objects. If storm waves push down an object being held afloat by open air pockets, the increase in depth would cause those pockets to shrink, reducing their buoyancy and causing the object to sink further, a phenomenon well-known by recreational scuba divers, who must learn to keep inflating their BCDs as they descend ...

    What's more, even if an object did manage to float just barely touching the surface, it would eventually sink lower as marine life accumulated. "Things never stay statically neutral," says oceanographer Curtis Ebbesmeyer. "It's a dynamic situation. It has to do with infiltration of water, it has to do with the weight of barnacles growing on it."

    Thus, the distribution of barnacles on the Reunion flaperon is difficult to understand. Because they are found all over its surface, the flaperon must have settled into the ocean with a buoyancy exactly identical to that of seawater. And somehow it remained there, floating in a stable manner. Yet this is close to physically impossible.

    How could the flaperon have remained underwater?

    Given the seeming impossibility of the flaperon floating free across the ocean while submerged, is there another way it might have arrived in its current barnacle-encrusted condition?

    Since the piece must have been completely underwater, it might have become colonized on the sea bottom. That explanation, however, is problematic. The 7th arc passes through an area of the southern Indian Ocean that is thousands of feet deep.

    In order to have become colonized by Lepas on the seabed, it would have had to have floated thousands of miles to shallower water, sunk, then refloated to the surface and almost immediately been washed ashore. Also, while Venn says that while she has collected specimens from as deep as 100 meters, "that was not on the bottom or anywhere close to the bottom. It was simply 100 meters below the surface where the ocean was probably more than 5000 meters deep. I have never heard of Lepas colonizing anything on the sea bottom."

    Another possibility is that the flaperon was positively bouyant but remained beneath the ocean surface because it was tethered to the seabed. As it happens, in the past researchers have successfully managed to raise Lepas on substrates anchored offshore. In Yoichi Yusa's experiment noted above, he collected Lepas specimens growing on pieces of driftwood and floating plastic and attached them to tethers in a bay in Japan. There he monitored their progress as they grew over the next month and a half.

    The view of the flaperon seen in Figure ... might provide evidence of how the tethering was accomplished. On the inboard edge of the upper face one can observe a peculiar strip where the surface appears considerably less weathered than the surrounding area ...

    A mysteriously clean rectangle

    When this was first pointed out to me, I figured it had to do with the missing piece of rubber gasket along the inboard edge of the top surface, which might have been knocked off by contact with a reef. But now that I look closer I see that it isn't actually that ...

    It seems that something was clamped to the "lighter patch" that isn't normally attached to a flaperon, and which was detached after the part spent some time in the ocean. Since it's hard to imagine this happening without human agency, perhaps it was part of a tethering/untethering operation. Perhaps an anchor line was attached there.

    Duration of immersion

    Up until now, it has been assumed that the flaperon was deposited somewhere along the 7th arc soon when MH370 impacted the southern Indian Ocean on March 8, 2014. If it was actively tethered to the seabed, obviously, this timeline is no longer relevant. Instead, we can turn to the barnacles to provide some indication of the likely duration of the flaperon's immersion.

    "Assuming they have enough food, and the temperature is good, barnacles will follow a steady growth progression," Venn says.

    The clock starts running the moment the flaperon hits the water: So long as the water is warm enough, Lepas will begin to colonize an object almost immediately. (Yachtsman who make long oceanic passages report that after spending a few weeks heeled over on a single tack a section of hull that is normally high and dry can pick up a colony of Lepas.

    Venn says she has seen cyprids attach to material as ephemeral as floating paper bags.) While the precise growth rate depends on water temperature and food availability, a rough notion of these parameters is enough to yield a ball-park figure for how long immersion has continued.

    Earlier this year, Venn co-authored a paper in which she and her colleagues ascertained that a human body found floating off the cost of Italy must have been in the water at least 65 to 90 days, based on the size of the Lepas barnacles growing on its clothes.

    We can do something similar for the barnacles on the flaperon, using the Mayotte boat as a reference. Since both traveled through a similar stretch of the southern Indian Ocean, their growth rates should be in the same ball park.

    By comparing features on the flaperon to reference objects of a known size (e.g., the rear door of a Gendarmerie Land Rover Defender in Figure ...) we can estimate the capitulum lengths of the largest barnicles on the flaperon. They turn out to be approximately 2.3 cm. Applying the same technique to the Mayotte barnacles yields capitulum lengths of about 3.5 cm.

    Yusa's paper on Lepas growth rates states that "Individuals <5 mm long (mean ± SE = 3.09 ± 0.19 mm) grew rapidly, reaching 12.45 ± 0.54 mm on day 15 (Fig. 2). After that, their growth slowed and finally reached 16.26 ± 0.49 mm on day 42."

    The Lepas anserifera that Yusa studied are somewhat smaller than the Lepas anatifera that predominate on the flaperon, but if we use Yusa's growth rate as a conservative lower bound, and suppose that the largest flaperon barnacles were 16.3 mm at day 42 and grew at 0.1 mm/day thereafter, that means it would take them another 67 days to reach 2.3 cm, for a total growth time of 109 days, or about four months.

    If they proceeded to grow at 0.1 mm for the following four months, that would take them to 3.5 cm, which is what the Mayotte barnacles achieved.

    Interestingly, when I asked Yusa via email how long it seemed to him that the colony had been growing on the Reunion Island flaperon, based on photographs I sent, Yusa answered: "I would guess that they had been there for a short time (between 2 weeks and a few months)." Venn's seat-of-the-pants estimate was less than six months.

    Conclusion

    Photographs of barnacles living on the MH370 flaperon discovered on Reunion Island, combined with expert insight into the lifecycle and habit preferences of the genus Lepas, suggest that the object did not float there from the plane's presumed impact point, but spent approximately four months tethered below the surface.

    UPDATE 10/10/15: Could the distribution of barnacles be explained by continual flipping?

    Since I posted this piece yesterday evening, a number of people have suggested that perhaps the flaperon flipped over every few hours, allowing barnacles to survive on both sides. Such a scenario might also explain why the density of Lepas is rather low compared to that seen on other objects. It faces two difficulties, however.

    First, the flaperon is broad and flat, and once its inner cavities were filled with water it would weigh thousands of pounds. With only a few inches of freeboard in even the most optimistic scenarios, it would be very resistant to being flipped, much more so than, say, the fridge, which nonetheless clearly floated in a stable manner.

    Even if it were fairly easy to invert, high waves and wind would be required to do so, which would mean that the flaperon would have had to have spent a year or more in constant storm conditions. Yet tranquil conditions are actually more normal.

    Calm seas are actually pretty common in the stable high pressure cells that more-or-less permanently inhabit the center of ocean basins, says Hank Carson, who has traveled across the Pacific gathering floating debris. It's hard to envisage anyhing flipping over on a day like this.

    Second, the reason that the Lepas line exists is that these animals don't like to be exposed, even for a few seconds. They can survive close to the waterline, where they are risk being exposed and immersed with every wave cycle, but only a few small outliers attempt it. They are simply not adapted to frequent long-duration exposure, like their relatives who live attached to rocks in the intertidal zone.

    "I do not think they can survive more than one day above the water," Yoichi Yusa told me, while Venn says she has seen them live as long as three days. Apart from the physiological stress of being exposed to what to them is a toxic environment, the animals would spend half their time unable to feed.

    So even if we imagine the essentially impossible scenario in which the flaperon keeps flipping back and forth every few hours, we would not expect to see dense aggregations of mature individuals ...

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