Deep biogenic petroleum theory
Hydrogen may comprise as much as 30-40 percent of total earth mass
Oilgae.com, Oil from Algae! (www.oilgae.com)
`` Oilgae: Oil & Biodiesel from Algae
While a number of bio-feedstock are currently being experimented for biodiesel production, algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production, for two main reasons (1) The yields of oil from algae are orders of magnitude higher than those for traditional oilseeds, and (2) Algae can grow in places away from the farmlands & forests, thus minimizing the damages caused to the eco- and food chain systems.
Though research into algae oil as a source for biodiesel is not new, the current oil crises and fast depleting fossil oil reserves have made it more imperative for organizations and countries to invest more time and efforts into research on suitable renewable feedstock such as algae ...
While algae are one of the more promising feedstock owing to their widespread availability and higher oil yields, it is felt that there are not enough web resources that provide comprehensive information on biodiesel production from algae. Oilgae.com ( www.oilgae.com ) intends to fill this gap, and aims to be a one-stop resource for information and web links for biodiesel production from algae ...
This web site hopes to be a small catalyst that assists with such inputs and analyses for those pursuing efforts in this area. We would hence be most grateful if visitors could provide us their feedback on what additional inputs they would wish to have on algae-based biodiesel ...
algOS: We are seriously exploring an Open Source ovement for biodiesel from production algae; if you are a biodiesel enthusiast, perhaps you'd like to join algOS, the open source movement for oil from algae.
See also: BdPedia.com, The Biodiesel WWW Encyclopedia
Oilgae.com is a product of eSource India & Sourcing India''
Date: Sun, 31 Dec 2006 18:10:39 -0800 (PST)
Source: Jones Beene
``GreenFuel's president Dr. Isaac Berzin ... offers the following data on the possibility of attaining hints of US self-sufficiency in liquid fuels:
To replace all transportation fuels in the US, we would need roughly 140 billion gallons of biodiesel. With a 50% market penetration of hybrid drivetrains and other improvements, this could be reduced to 100 billion gallons, worth a quarter trillion$ at the pump at 2006 prices. This won't happen now, but could at least be phased-in - so as to offset continuing growth in drivers.
To produce the larger amount of biodiesel by growing soybeans would require almost 3 billion acres of prime farm land, or over 1 billion acres growing canola (rapeseed), at nominal yields of 48 and 127 gallons oil per acre, respectively - and cost twice as much as the comparative value of petrol. This is impossible to do that anyway, and still provide food crops at a reasonable prices. Plus it is basically immoral - as long as people are hungry in Africa.
To produce that same amount of biodiesel by growing algae on flooded desert would require a land mass of roughly 9.5 million acres (almost 15,000 square miles, far less than the largest county in Alaska). To put this number in perspective, consider that the Sonora desert in the southwestern US comprises eight times more land - 120,000 square miles.
Algae are now producing 15,000 gallons per acre for the dozen startup companies and small farmers working on this strategy. Greater production is possible with engineered algae (yes, the dreaded green goo!)
450 million acres are currently used for crop farming in the US, and over 500 million acres are used as grazing land for farm animals, so the requirements for fuel are relatively trivial.
As has been shown by many, it is not possible nor desireable to grow enough corn for ethanol to meet our fuel needs, but using lipids extracted from algae, not requiring distillation, for a substantial proportion of fuel - this is possible. Arguably - even now, the incredible ramp-up to ethanol in the Mid-West - that unsung phenomenon has already been partially responsible for moderating the previous rapid rise in gasoline prices.
Corn crops convert only about one percent of available sunlight to energy while algae can convert up to 60% and do it on land otherwise unusable for anything other than armadillos. Not that there's anything wrong with armadillos.
At least the desert is usable if we can "back-up" the ... Rio Grande river -- probably be cheaper than a big fence anyway.
And if we can phase-in the home production and use of HOOH to boost biodiesel - we can and should avoid not only an energy crisis but higher prices - at least to about this time in 2012 ...''
Date: Mon, 01 Jan 2007 01:28:12 -0600
Source: thomas malloy
``... as long as people are hungry in Africa.
To produce that same amount of biodiesel by growing algae on flooded desert would require a land mass of roughly 9.5 million acres (almost 15,000 square miles, far less than the largest county in Alaska). To put this number in perspective, consider that the Sonora desert in the southwestern US comprises eight times more land - 120,000 square miles.''
``Thank you Jones. Then there is the matter of the land area ... known as the Sahara ...''
NEWS ARTICLE from The Plain Dealer, 12-30-06, by Brad Foss, Associated Press
``WASHINGTON -- Oil prices settled above $61 a barrel on Friday [12-29-06] to finish 2006 roughly where they began, marking another tough year for energy consumers and another stellar one for the petroleum industry.
It was the fifth straight year in which oil prices were higher than the year before, on average.
Many analysts are looking for crude-oil futures next year to average more than $60 a barrel because of robust demand in Asia and the Middle East, efforts by OPEC to trim supply, and market-rattling instability in energy- rich countries such as Nigeria and Iraq ...
Nymex oil futures peaked at an intraday high of $78.40 on July 14  but averaged $66.25 for the year, compared with $56.70 in 2005 and $41.47 in 2004 ...''
[How much does the price of oil depend on fear that there is not enough to go around?]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
``Deep biogenic petroleum theory
The deep biotic petroleum theory, similar to the abiogenic petroleum origin hypothesis, holds that not all petroleum deposits within the Earth's rocks can be explained purely according to the orthodox view of petroleum geology .
This theory is strictly different from abiogenic oil in that the role of deep-dwelling microbes is a biological source for oil which is not of a sedimentary origin and is not sourced from surface carbon ...
Microbial life has been discovered 4.2 kilometers deep in Alaska and 5.2 kilometers deep in Sweden.
Methanophile organisms have been known for some time, and recently it was found that microbial life in Yellowstone National Park is based on hydrogen metabolism. Other deep and hot extremophile organisms continue to be discovered.
Proponents of abiogenic petroleum origin contend that deep microbial life is responsible for the biomarkers (see below) that are generally cited as evidence of biogenic origin.
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientist Frank Chapelle and his colleagues from the USGS and the University of Massachusetts have discovered a potential analog for life on other planets. A community of Archaea bacteria is thriving deep in the subsurface source of a hot spring in Idaho. Geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. This is the first documented case of a microbial community completely dominated by Archaea.
Deep microbial sources for petroleum and hydrocarbon chemicals within some sedimentary basins and within some crystalline rocks may explain some contradictory evidence as to the source of these oils.
Specifically, the presence of biomarkers in the extremely rare examples of Proterozoic oils and within oils found in Mesozoic and younger crystalline reservoirs, could be explained as coming from deep-dwelling bacteria.
The abiogenic theory of oil sees the role of deep microbes as providing these biomarkers as contaminants of abiogenic petroleum accumulations, not as products of plant and plankton detritus which have been converted to petroleum via orthodox biogenic processes ...
Due to the difficulty in culturing and sampling deep heat-loving bacteria, thermophiles, little was known of their chemistry. As more is learned of bacterial chemistry, more biomarkers seem likely to be due to bacterial action. 
Microbial biomarkers ...
Hopanoids, called the "most abundant natural products on Earth", were believed to be indicators of oil derived from ferns and lichens but are now known to be created by many bacteria, including archaea.
Sterane was thought to have come from processes involving surface deposits but is now known to be produced by several prokaryotes including methanotrophic proteobacteria. Thorough rebuttal of biogenic origins based on biomarkers has been offered by Kenney, et al. (2001). ...
[It has been suggested that] all petroleum up to tar and most of the carbon in coal are derivatives of methane, which is progressively stripped of its hydrogen by bacteria and archaea. The resultant partial methane molecules, CH3, CH2, CH, may be called "an-hydrides". Anhydride Theory, a New Theory of Petroleum and Coal Generation, is offered by C. Warren Hunt (1999) ...
Kenney, J., Shnyukov, A., Krayushkin, V., Karpov, I., Kutcherov, V. and Plotnikova, I. (2001). "Dismissal of the claims of a biological connection for natural petroleum". Energia 22 (3): 26-34. Article link
Hunt, C. Warren, 1999; Coalbed Methane: Scientific, Environmental and Economic Evaluation; Kluwer Academic Publishers; pages 571 - 580.''
Hydrides and Anhydrides by C. Warren Hunt, 1119 Sydenham Road SW, CALGARY, ALBERTA, CANADA T2T 0T5, Tel. (403)-244-3341, Fax (403) 244-2834, E-mail: email@example.com
[Hydrogen may comprise as much as 30-40 percent of total earth mass today.]
``Hydrogen being 90% or more of all matter in the Universe, must have been abundantly present in the formation of the early earth. The consensus among scientists has been that most primordial hydrogen was expelled as the earth accreted. New evidence challenges the consensus raises questions as to the validity of other long-held geological concepts.
The new evidence involves the behavior of hydrogen nucleii, which at pressures characteristic of mantle depths have shed their electrons and inject themselves inside the first electron rings of metal atoms. Thus sequestered within the earth, hydrogen may comprise as much as 30-40 percent of total earth mass today.
Hydrogen penetration into metals was demonstrated by Vladimir N. Larin, a geologist, whose project over the last 34 years has been research in the USSR and FSU on sources of natural hydrogen. Three major effects result from the phenomenon: (1) transmutation, (2) densification, and (3) fluidization ...
Mass is added to transmuted potassium by hydrogen gas ... [There are] four distinct stages. The stages ascending are:
COVALENT ADSORPTION of H by K metal with DENSIFICATION from ~0,87 to ~1.65 g/cm3, nearly doubling the density without any pressure increase. The metal 'sucks up' hydrogen.
INTRA-LATTICE ADSORPTION of H by K metal with DENSIFICATION from ~1.65 to ~2.0 g/cm3 with pressure rising from zero to 5 Gpa; hydrogen retains its electron.
INTRA-LATTICE OCCLUSION of H by K metal with DENSIFICATION from ~2.0 to ~2.35 g/cm3 without further pressure increase; hydrogen sheds its electron.
IONIC HYDRIDE where H nucleus penetrates the potassium atomic electron shell, thus effecting metal DENSIFICATION from ~2.35 to ~3.7 g/cm3 with a pressure increase from 5 Gpa to ~30 Gpa. Addition of mass to an atomic core is by definition transmutation. Thus, this stage transmutes potassium to intermetal.
Of the total densification to 4.25 times original density, 40% is in the two spontaneous densification stages, 1 and 3. Stage 4 comprises a further 48% of the densification, the nucleus-injection stage and transmutation stage. Its upper limit is unknown.
From this data it is easily shown that the excess core and mantle density above that of the crust can be attributed to injected hydrogen, and the density differences between inner core, outer core, and lower mantle can be treated as phase effects. In this scenario the idea of an iron core is superfluous.
V.N. Larin demonstrated the fluidity of titanium hydride for this writer by setting a ruby in plasticized titanium intermetal. Under reduced pressure the hydrogen bled off, allowing the metal to recrystallize and leave the ruby set firmly in metallic titanium.
The potassium and titanium behaviors are not unique. All elements but noble gases form hydrides, some readily, others not so readily. Thus, a mixture of non-metal hydrides and fluidic intermetals that comprised the interior of the primordial earth should undergo fractionation and coalescense of components on the basis of mobility and density differences.
Non-metal hydrides, H2O, NH3, H2S, CH4, that were present during accretion of the earth would have been the first to go. Expelled, they accumulated as atmosphere and hydrosphere. Solar wind bombardment and dissociation of non-metal hydrides allowed hydrogen to escape into space. This left residual oxygen and nitrogen to build up in the atmosphere, which then enabled a transformation in the biosphere. Replacement of the early Archean biota of hydrogen-tolerant prokaryotes by oxygen-tolerant eukaryotes in the late Archean is clear evidence of the conversion of the atmosphere at that time.
Intermetal hydride plumes would follow. Coalescing on the bases of differential fluidity and density, viscous intermetal plumes rise buoyantly through the mantle, perhaps lubricated by hydrides of the earth's third most abundant element, the transition element, silicon. Rising into regimes of reduced pressure the intermetals dissociate or oxidize, creating crust in the forms of rock-forming minerals and metal ores.
The hydrides of silicon, the silanes (SiH4, Si2H6, Si3H8, Si4H10, etc.) are of special interest. Gases at standard conditions, they react vigorously with water, producing quartz, volcanic ash, and rock-forming minerals, depending on depth, pressure and the admixture of other metal hydrides. The high mobility of silane explains the mode of transfer of silicon from the interior to the oxidic crust. Crust then is the residue after silane and intermetal oxidation and release of hydrogen, which eventually escapes into space.
Carbon, the sister element of silicon, is a lesser component of earth makeup, but probably is prominent in the form of carbides in the interior. Its primary hydride form, methane (CH4), although energy-laden like silane, behaves quite differently in three important contrasting ways. First, it does not react with water; second, its combustion products are only gases; and third, it enables the biosphere.
Where silane is stalled in the crust by reacting with water, methane and hydrogen released by its partial oxidation proceed upward in fracture pathways. Methane and hydrogen seep into deep, shield mines and through porous members of sedimentary series. Both are major constituents of fluid inclusions in sub-oceanic basalts as well as in shield granites. Their migration is differentially impeded due to their different molecular sizes. Methane may be trapped temporarily, while hydrogen escapes. Both enter the atmosphere worldwide on a large scale.
Thus the hydridic earth image comprises a mobile inner geosphere of highly-reduced, dense, intermetals and carbides, an outer geosphere of oxidic rock that has accumulated incrementally through geological time, and a transient liquid-gas envelope. The image implies a core that is neither iron nor very hot, because the heat source for endogeny is primarily not primordial heat but the chemical energy released in the upper mantle and lower crust, near the crust-mantle boundary by hydride oxidation.
Hydrocarbons other than methane are partially oxidized carbon forms, and thus unlikely to occur in any form but methane in the earth's interior where extreme reducing conditions prevail. When methane rises to outer crust levels from the interior, its chemical energy is available to metabolize bacteria and archaea that live there in total darkness at elevated temperatures. They get that energy by stripping hydrogen from the methane and oxidizing it metabolically.
When bacteria and archaea strip hydrogen from methane, they create 'anhydrides' of methane, CH3, CH2, etc. Two CH3s combine to make C2H6, ethane; two CH3s and one CH2 make C3H8, propane, etc. The process is known on the surface, where outcrops of petroliferous strata sometimes are sealed by bacterially produced tar seals behind which live oil has accumulated. In this case, bacteria have stripped hydrogen from live oil, rendering it immobile.
Anhydride theory merely extrapolates the process backward to explain stripping of methane, the lowest carbon numbered hydrocarbon. Petroleum can be interpreted as degenerated methane, a product of the biosphere. Petroleum produced by bacterial stripping of methane is, a mixture of anhydrides of methane, an organic product produced from inorganic methane.
Coal and oil shales are also anhydride products. In peat and kerogen-rich shales, partially oxidized carbon is present that has lost electrons and thus carries positive charges. By contrast, the carbon in methane that effuses from the highly reduced earth interior has acquired electrons and is negatively charged. Opposite charges cause capture of effusing methane by peat and kerogen. Once captured, methane is stripped progressively of its hydrogen by bacteria and archaea that naturally occur in the peat and kerogen.
The terminal anhydride, pure carbon, the main component of the purest coals and asphaltites, and protein molecules (porphyrins and others) that are found in petroleum and coal are molecular residues of organic origin.
The fact that coal and oil shales have more carbon and hydrogen than their peat and fossil predecessors is clear evidence that fossils cannot fully explain their origins. These high carbon and hydrogen contents of oil shales and coals require abiogenic additions, whereas organic molecules require organic provenance. Methane and petroleum found in coal seams and organic shales should be seen as evidence of methane capture, not methane generation.
The topology of petroleum occurrence is a further defeat for the argument in favour of either an exclusively organic or exclusively abiogenic origin for petroleum. If oil were either rising from primordial sources in the earth's interior or created in 'oil windows' by catagenesis, the more mobile fractions would escape from the depths and be found more abundantly near the surface and less mobile fractions, low gravity oils, would be present at depth. Exactly the opposite is the norm. Methane gas, the most mobile hydrocarbon, is more abundant with depth, worldwide; and tars, the least mobile, are most abundant at and near the surface.
Working backwards through the above points, we can say that:
Topologies of hydrocarbon occurrences indicate that methane effuses from the interior, not petroleum;
that topologies of hydrocarbon occurrences indicate that low-gravity oil is not generated at depth in oil windows;
that methane beneficiates fossiliferous shales and peat deposits, creating oil shales and coal. Oil shales and coal do not generate methane;
that Bacteria and archaea in the outer crust strip hydrogen from methane progressively through condensates, high gravity oil, and low gravity oil, to bitumens;
that hydrides of silicon and carbon along with intermetals rise into crustal levels where dissociation and oxidation liberate the heat of endogeny and deposit rock-forming minerals, and metal deposits, leaving only methane and hydrogen to effuse into the atmosphere;
that nonmetal hydrides escaping from the interior of the primordial earth created a reducing atmosphere that was changed over to oxygen-rich by the loss of hydrogen to space;
and that the discovery that hydrogen nuclei under pressure penetrate atomic shells of metals, transmuting the metals to intermetals, densifying them, and fluidizing them, creates an entirely new geological picture of the earth's interior, of endogeny, and of the mode by which the crust was created [and also of the almost infinite supply of petroleum and methane waiting to be found.] ''
BioScience editorial by Pimentel and Patzek
Editorial: Green Plants, Fossil Fuels, and Now Biofuels
BioScience Volume 56: 875. November 2006
For 700 million years, green plants contributed to the formation of soil, oil, natural gas, and coal. As the human population increases, so too does the consumption of soil and fossil energy. If this trend continues unabated, humans will consume most of these precious resources within the next few hundred years.
By 1850, when wood accounted for 91 percent of US energy consumption and the US population was less than 10 percent of the current 300 million, serious wood shortages already existed. Now, with only about 4.5 percent of the world population, the United States accounts for a quarter of total fossil fuel use, the largest per capita consumption of any country.
Between 1850 and 2000, 90 percent of the US oil endowment was mined. Converting grain or other biomass into ethanol is currently a popular idea, but it is not a new one. It requires fertile soil, large quantities of water, and sunlight for green plant production.
Green plants in the United States collect about 53 exajoules of energy per year from sunlight. Americans consume slightly more than twice that amount, however. Enthusiasts suggest that ethanol produced from corn and cellulosic biomass could replace much of the oil used in the United States. Yet the 18 percent of the US corn crop that is now converted into 4.5 billion gallons of ethanol replaces only 1 percent of US petroleum consumption. If the entire corn crop were used, it would replace only 6 percent. And because the country has lost over a third of its agricultural topsoil, no large increase in the corn crop is possible.
Our up-to-date analysis of the 14 energy inputs that typically go into corn production and the 9 invested in fermentation and distillation operations confirms that 29 percent more energy (derived from fossil fuels) is required to produce a gallon of corn ethanol than is contained in the ethanol ... Investigators differ over the energy value of the by-products of making corn ethanol, but the credits range only from 10 percent to 60 percent. In any event, biomass ethanol is a bad choice from an energy standpoint.
Moreover, the environmental impacts of corn ethanol are enormous. They include severe soil erosion, heavy use of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides, and a significant contribution to global warming. In addition, each gallon of ethanol requires 1700 gallons of water (mostly to grow the corn) and produces 6 to 12 gallons of noxious organic effluent.
Using food crops, such as corn grain, to produce ethanol also raises major ethical concerns. More than 3.7 billion humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other foods is critical. Growing crops to provide fuel squanders resources; better options to reduce our dependence on oil are available. Energy conservation and development of renewable energy sources, such as solar cells and solar-based methanol synthesis, should be given priority.
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
University of California at Berkeley
I-owe-gen, eh? > as in "I owe it all to genetics"
``About -- Iogen -- Cellulose Ethanol Enzyme Technology
Established in the 1970s, Iogen Corporation has become one of Canada's leading biotechnology firms. Iogen is the world leader in technology to produce cellulose ethanol, a fully renewable, advanced biofuel that can be used in today's cars. Iogen is also an industrial manufacturer of enzyme products with a focus on products for use by the pulp and paper, textile and animal feed industries.
Iogen is a privately held company, based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, with a rapidly growing work force. Public and private investment in Iogen has totaled approximately $130 million over the past 25 years. Major investors include the Royal Dutch/Shell Group, Petro-Canada and Goldman Sachs. The company employs a staff of approximately 190 people, with over half involved in research and development, and engineering; one fifth in manufacturing; and the balance in sales, marketing, and administration.
Cellulose Ethanol is Ready to Go
Cellulose ethanol can significantly:
* lower overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
* reduce reliance on imported oil and increase energy security
* help build rural economies and improve farm income
Cellulose ethanol is one of the most cost effective ways to reduce GHGs and gasoline consumption in road transport and can deliver benefits similar to improved vehicle efficiency.
Iogen built and operates the world's only demonstration scale facility to convert biomass to cellulose ethanol using enzyme technology. This facility is located in Ottawa. Iogen is currently assessing potential locations for the world's first commercial prototype cellulose ethanol plant.
In the long-term, Iogen intends to commercialize its cellulose ethanol process by licensing its technology broadly through turnkey plant construction partnerships. License fees and the supply of enzymes to the licensees' plants will generate income.''
NEWS ARTICLE from The Pueblo Chieftain, CO, 1-24-07, By NATE JENKINS, ASSOCIATED PRESS
``Livestock waste powers ethanol plants
MEAD, NEBRASKA -- Ranchers have long been fond of saying cattle manure smells like money.
Now, folks in the business of making ethanol are smelling dollars too -- in the methane gas emitted by manure at large cattle feedlots and dairies.
Across the country, ethanol plants powered by methane instead of costly natural gas or coal are on the drawing board -- a movement that could be a win-win situation for the environment and the industry.
''We'll produce ethanol much more efficiently and do it in an environmentally friendly way,'' said Dennis Langley, CEO of Kansas-based E3 BioFuels.
Burning the methane will cut the amount of the greenhouse gas, which contributes to global warming, released into the environment.
And in addition to providing a cheap energy alternative, using methane addresses a longtime criticism that making ethanol uses too much natural gas or coal to produce ...
The first plant using a so-called methanol closed-loop system is set to begin operations here in February .
Under the closed-loop system at the Mead plant, manure will fall through metal slats in the cattle pens and be collected. Methane from the manure will be trapped instead of being allowed to drift into the atmosphere, and then used to generate power for the plant. Corn and grain will be used to produce ethanol and cattle will eat the wet distiller's grain that is a byproduct of ethanol production, closing the loop.
Langley's plant is next to a 28,000-head cattle feedlot. The cattle will produce roughly 244,000 tons of manure annually -- more than enough to be the sole power source for the company's 25-million-gallon ethanol plant ...
''Cows are a major source of greenhouse gas,'' said David Mager, vice president of Bion Environmental Technologies, a company helping livestock operations incorporate ethanol production by using manure. The company is working with about five ethanol plants now. ''One-third of all methane comes from livestock.'' ...
Other companies have similar plans to use methane to power ethanol plants. Texas-based Panda Ethanol plans to build a total of four methane-powered ethanol plants in Texas, Colorado and Kansas, with the first scheduled to begin operations later this year.
And the boom is being fueled by more than a desire to help the environment. A 40-million-gallon ethanol plant can save millions of dollars annually in energy costs by using on-site methane instead of natural gas, Mager said ...
Matt Hartwig ... a spokesman for the Renewable Fuels Association, a national trade association for ethanol, says ... one unit [of fossil fuel energy produces] 1.67 units of ethanol energy ...
Langley believes [such] margins are too thin and that traditional ethanol production is too inefficient to be sustainable. One unit of energy at his plant, he says, will turn out more than 46 energy units from ethanol.
''We blow it away,'' Langley said of his plant compared to traditional gas and coal-fired ethanol plants. ''It's a radical departure.'' But not one that will reform the entire ethanol industry, or even a large piece of it, said Hartwig. After all, one must have cattle -- and lots of them - to make plants like the one near Mead work ...
Manure isn't the only source of methane.
Outside Jackson, Nebraska, Leonard Gill plans on drawing gas from trash. He has tons of it as owner of a regional landfill. His L.P. Gill Landfill now is dotted with wells that will draw methane gas that, in some cases, has been trapped in the ground for decades.
Pipes will transport the methane to an ethanol plant about a mile away. The methane will provide a portion of the plant's power and could save about $250,000 annually in energy costs, according to officials at the plant ...
For more on E3 BioFuels: http://www.e3biofuels.com''
POST to firstname.lastname@example.org, 12-29-06, by Jones Beene
``The lead story in the MIT review: "Biowaste to ethanol could soon power cars."
Needless to say, on Vortex we have rehashed the broader subject area in great detail over the years, with focus on the pro-and-con arguments; but it ususally requires the imprimatur of a name like MIT to quash some of the remnants of disinformation...
...and even now MIT is "behind the curve" ... (at least this tech-writer is) as the future is NOT exactly: biowaste --> ehtanol, but closer to biowaste --> fermented biodiesel (and that fuel labeled as biodiesel can include some percentage of mixed alcohols. Which alchohols can include ethanol, methanol and especially butanol -- the best alcohol to bio-engineer-for if you want to use only alcohol in an internal combustion engine (ICE)). Here is their take:
"Converting a vehicle to run primarily on ethanol costs just a couple of hundred dollars. But ethanol won't make much of a dent in gas use as long as the source of ethanol in the United States remains corn grain, which requires a lot of energy and land in order to grow.
A much better alternative is cellulosic materials such as wood chips and switchgrass, which are both cheap to grow and require fewer natural resources ...
In an effort to reduce the processing costs of these materials, researchers are genetically engineering organisms that can devour grasses and waste biomass, digest the complex sugars, and then transform the resulting simple sugars into alcohol ..."
Already, advances in parts of this process have led to planned cellulosic-ethanol plants. (See "Making Ethanol from Wood Chips.")''
In the spirit of July 4, 1776, make an individual contribution to energy independence: Drive a plug-in hybrid!
See www.iags.org/pih.htm --
Jed Rothwell wrote:
1. Plug-in hybrids and regular hybrids use far less energy per mile, so even with coal-based electricity they produce less CO2 and other pollution per mile.
2. In California, where the Google plug-in hybrid initiative is being launched, they do not have any coal-fired electricity. It is all natural gas, hydro, fission and wind. Therefore it produces much less pollution per mile. At Google headquarters they will use solar electricity to recharge the plug-in hybrids, so there will be virtually no pollution per mile.
Overall, about half of U.S. electricity comes from coal, but the other half does not. If you recharge a plug-in hybid overnight, the chances are you are using fission power and no coal.
The U.S. could easily reduce the amount of coal-fired electricity by reducing demand with better efficiency, and by building fission and wind generators. It could even do this while putting 10 million plug-in hybrids on the road because, as we have discussed here, electric cars use only moderate amounts of electricity, that can easily be met with today's generating capacity. More electricity could be saving by replacing lightbulbs and refrigerators than the 10 million cars would use.
Robin van Spaandonk wrote:
When [cold] fusion becomes viable (in whatever form) [including from the formation of hydrinos], it may not be possible to put generators in cars (at least right away). Consequently it does no harm to introduce cars now that rely at least to some extent on battery technology. That gives the battery industry both incentive and opportunity to improve on their product, and the time may come when we need to rely on it more heavily.
NEWS ARTICLE from TheMoneyTimes, 6-22-07, by Toby Shute
``Go, Go, Google Hybrid!
Google (Nasdaq: GOOG) has been known to shake things up in the transportation realm. There's the indispensable Google Maps, and the much-ballyhooed carpool system the company offers its employees. But these initiatives are small potatoes compared to the search giant's latest aspirations.
Through its nonprofit arm, Google.org , the company is taking up the cause of hybrid electric vehicles ...
The company has pledged $10 million in grants, and it's stocking its corporate fleet with plug-in hybrid vehicles to demonstrate the technology's effectiveness ...''
NEWS ARTICLE from Los Angeles Times, 6-19-07, by Martin Zimmerman, Times Staff Writer
``Google underwrites push to plug-in hybrid cars
... Google.org released the results of a pilot project in which a Prius converted to plug-in operation achieved average fuel economy of 70 mpg to 75 mpg. The new EPA estimate for an unmodified Prius is 46 miles per gallon in combined city-highway driving, while the average for all 2006 model cars sold in the U.S. was 24.6 miles per gallon ...
The plug-in hybrid program is the first major initiative for Google.org , a US$1-billion effort set up by Google in 2005 to finance work in three main areas: climate change, health care and global economic development.
On Monday, Google also switched on a 1.6-megawatt solar installation at its corporate headquarters in Mountain View, Calif. The solar power will be used in part to recharge Google's corporate fleet of plug-in hybrids, which it will lease through Enterprise Rental Car.''
NEWS ARTICLE from Sustainable Mobility, 6-24-07, by Mike Millikin
``... HYBRIDS and PLUG-IN HYBRIDS
Hybrid electric vehicles have saved close to 230 million gallons -- 5.5 million barrels -- of fuel in the United States since their introduction in 1999, according to a recent analysis conducted by the US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). More...
Google.org , the philanthropic arm of Google Inc., introduced its Recharge initiative to accelerate the adoption of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. As part of this initiative, Google.org awarded $1 million in grants and announced plans for a $10 million request for proposals (RFP) to fund development, adoption and commercialization of plug-ins, fully electric cars and related vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. More...
Honda is considering building its Civic Hybrid in China, according to a report in the Shanghai Daily. If the plan proceeds, China would become Honda's first hybrid production site outside Japan. More...
Enova Systems has entered into a partnership with a major unnamed Asia-based OEM to integrate and to test its proprietary Post Transmission Parallel Hybrid system. The system is targeted for integration and/or retrofit into North American delivered 2008 model year vehicles ...''
NEWS ARTICLE from The Indianapolis Star, 6-21-07, by JAMES R. HEALEY, USA TODAY
``Google gets behind plug-in hybrid autos
Internet search company Google hopes to speed the development of plug-in hybrid cars by giving away millions of dollars to people and companies that have what appear to be practical ways to get plug-ins to market faster ...
Google won't build and sell hybrid electrics but will focus "on accelerating their development through research, testing and investment," says Dan Reicher of Google.org , Google's philanthropic arm.
General Motors is the only major automaker that has announced specific plans to market plug-in vehicles, as soon as 2010. "We applaud them for the investment in plug-in hybrid vehicle technologies," says Brian Corbett of GM. "Every little bit helps." ...
Plug-in hybrids have bigger-capacity batteries than regular gasoline-electric hybrids. That means they go farther using just the battery-powered electric motor before they need to switch on the gasoline engine for more power or to recharge the batteries. Plug-ins, as the name implies, can be recharged by plugging them into normal household current, trimming even more the need for the engine.
Other automakers are researching plug-in hybrids, and some individuals and companies are modifying hybrids into plug-in vehicles. Google says it has a small fleet of Toyota Prius and Ford Escape hybrids modified into plug-ins and is recording more than 70 miles per gallon, compared with 41 mpg from its ordinary Prius hybrids.
Google.org announced six grants Monday of $100,000 to $200,000, totaling $1.05 million. The projects include advocating for and educating about plug-ins and promoting their research, design and development.
This summer, Google.org will request proposals for an additional $10 million for continued work on developing hybrids, batteries and other storage technologies and the application of renewable energy and fuels to vehicles.''
On July 4, 2007, Commentator 1 wrote:
Ran across this in my archives and can't resist sending it. If we don't break free from the political grip of the Oil Gang -- maybe with plug-in hybrids -- we can look forward to a war in the Middle East - Central Asia around 2020 that will make our current military adventures seem like child's play.
Archive of Wednesday, 9-23-98:
Commentator 2 wrote:
I was fascinated by your thoughts on the K wave. Several years ago I was in Moscow and met a certain Dr. Karpov who was from Siberia and was a research assistant to Dr. Kontradiev [or Kondratieff]. I asked him if Russian scholars still believed in the K wave, and he responded "no". Two years later, exactly on time, the Russian economy collapsed! I am curious about your comments about a rise of war along the old high water marks from the initial rise of Islam. What cyclic rythum do you see that indicates this is out seven to ten years? Also can you explain "war of enthusiasm."
Commentator 1 wrote:
Consider this series:
1789 Fall of Bastile (Napoleonic Wars)
[In the U. S,, the Indian War that culminated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 near what is now Toledo, Ohio]
1848 Mexican War (1848 - 1789 = 59)
1898 Spanish - American War (1898 - 1848 = 50)
1951 Korean War (1951 - 1898 = 53)
(59 + 50 + 53)/3 = 54
1951 + 54 = 2005
There are no draft protesters in a war of enthusiam. There are slogans: Liberte ..., Remember the Alamo (Maine)
[Slogan for the Iraq War and the War on Terror: "Bring our enemies to justice, or bring justice to our enemies."]
There are many volunteering to fight. There is no discord between major blocs of civil society. Contrast this with the situation in 1812, 1861, 1917, and 1970.
[The worst of these wars could be the one that starts around 2020.
WWII was a contiuation of WWI, analogous to the Thirty Year's War (1618 - 1648) in fanaticism and savagery.]
Commentator 3 wrote:
Former CIA director James Woolsey made this insightful observation in the "Futurist" magazine
"If you remember, we got interested in alternative fuel firms like the Synfuels Corporation in the late seventies and then in 1985, the Saudi's dropped the oil down to $5 a barrel and bankrupted the Synfuels Corporation.
The good news is that they bankrupted the Soviet Union, too, but they certainly undercut alternative fuel efforts. People got interested in alternative fuels again in the early nineties, then in the late nineties, oil dropped down to $10 a barrel and people lost interest, again. One of the things that we have to do is make sure that this rollercoaster effect can't happen again."
One way to do this is a floating import duty on Arabian oil which will keep the price at a level where all the alternative biofuels, like Algoil, which we can make from Algae will have a ready market. We can exclude corn ethanol by other means.
Commentator 4 wrote:
There is a lot of irony in the James Woosley article. It reminds me of an obscure film I once saw back around 1980, titled "The Formula" starring George C. Scott and Marlin Brando.
and Ebert's take:
The film revolved around a murder espionage mystery associated with the deliberate suppression of a chemical formula, a cheap and easy to implement catalyst that could be used to convert ample supplies of coal into a liquid petroleum base making (as it had been theorized over twenty years ago) cheap and abundant oil.
G. C. Scott is an investigator hot on the trail of a murder victim, a famous chemist. He quickly discovers that the chemist had been murdered because of his unique knowledge of a special chemical catalyst, the "formula". Scott's investigation eventually lands him in the mansion of a major petroleum CEO tycoon where he confronts the legendary (as well as physically large) Marlin Brando ..."
Commentator 3 wrote:
Perfect quote from that movie:
Adam Steiffel (Brando) Chairman of Titan Oil:
"We're not in the oil business; we're in the oil shortage business!"
Commentator 3 also wrote:
We will probably need to tax foreign crude oil at some point, if they drop the price - which has happened before.
Our friends, the Saudi's, intentionally bankrupted the Synfuels corporation in 1985 with a targeted price drop:
Let's not let OPEC do this again, even if it means new taxes ...
It is perhaps overly optimistic to think that the PetroMafia will be voted out next time, as they control both parties really ...
Commentator 5 wrote:
Regardless, is there anyone who might agree that folks who study cycles might add something probative and worthwhile to the global warming discussion with an objective quantitative look at history? ...
Commentator 1 wrote:
Whatever the merits of the arguments about global warming, the real problem is national security. Do you want your grandchildren drafted to fight in th Kazakh War of 2020?
If the Russians are willing to claim the oil from their north shore to the North Pole, they will certainly do whatever is necessary to maintain their control of the oil of Central Asia, as evidenced by the failure of Unocal to build a pipeline from Kazakhstan across Afghanistan to the port of Karachi in Pakistan.
Regardless of global warming, measures to reduce oil consumption such as individuals driving plug-in hybrids should be vigorously pursued. This is something we can do now, and has the same effect as working to reduce global warming (whether or not it is needed), especially wind power etc., oilgae diesel fuel to replace gasoline, etc.
P.S. The Russians have never rehabilitated Kondratieff, and they must be baffled by the benefits to us of the current trough war in Iraq -- how can the U. S. budget deficit actually be declining while Oil Gang revenues reach record levels? The Russians aren't any smarter than we are, which is frightening.
[The bottom line is that despite the waste of American lives and tax dollars, the owners of oil wells have made a killing. How much longer will we let the Oil Gang exploit us?]
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