On the Quantum Principle of Equivalence, Quantum Inertia, and the Meaning of Mass.

Tom Ostoma and Mike Trushyk

48 O'HARA PLACE, Brampton, Ontario, L6Y 3R8, emqg@rogerswave.ca

Tuesday, September 22, 1998

... A new approach to quantum gravity called Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity (EMQG) is described. It is manifestly compatible with Cellular Automata (CA) theory (ref. 1), and is based on a new theory of inertia (ref. 5) proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff (which we modified and called Quantum Inertia). They show that Newtonian Inertia is due to the strictly local electromagnetic force interactions of matter (quantum particles) with the surrounding charged virtual particles of the quantum vacuum. The sum of all the tiny electromagnetic forces originating from each charged particle in the mass with respect to the vacuum, is the source of the total inertial force of a mass which opposes accelerated motion in Newton's law F = MA.

Their theory also resolves the problems and paradoxes of accelerated motion introduced in Mach's principle, by suggesting that the state of acceleration of the charged virtual particles of the quantum vacuum (with respect to a mass) serves as Newton's universal reference frame for the mass, which Newton called absolute space. The (net statistical) acceleration of the charged virtual particles of the quantum vacuum (with respect to some test mass) can be used as an absolute reference frame to gauge inertial mass. Therefore, this frame can be used to define both absolute acceleration and absolute mass, which is equivalent to relativistic rest mass.

However, this frame cannot be used to gauge absolute state of motion of an inertial reference frame. Thus, Einstein's principle of relativity is still applicable for inertial frames (frames of constant velocity motion, or where Newton's law of inertia applies). The special relativistic treatment of inertial force, acceleration, and inertial mass is revised here to acknowledge the existence of absolute mass. We found that the special relativistic variation of mass with relative velocity

m = m0/(1 - v^2/c^2)^.5

is actually caused by the decrease in the effectiveness of the applied force, where the applied force and destination mass have a large relative velocity v. We show that this decrease of the applied force is caused by a relativistic timing effect of the received force exchange particles, which alters the received flux of the exchange bosons. ...

Einstein's derivation of E=mc^2 was unnecessarily complex (ref. 21) because of his reluctance to utilize results from quantum theory. Although he was one of the founders of the (old) quantum theory, he remained skeptical about the validity of the theory throughout his whole career. In EMQG, we treat the energy-mass equivalence as a purely quantum process, and not as a result of special relativity.

Although Einstein derived this law when he developed special relativity, it can be derived purely from quantum theory. As we hinted, the ability of a photon to transfer momentum (and thus carry energy) can be traced to a QED vertex, where a packet of momentum is transferred from the photon to an electron.

Let us assume that the effective mass of the photon is m.

Furthermore, the photon has a velocity c,

momentum p,

energy E,

a wavelength l,

and a frequency n.

Therefore, by using the properties of the photon below (where h is Plank's constant):

p=mc (from classical physics) (CLASSICAL) (10.31)

c=nl (definition of frequency and wavelength) (CLASSICAL) (10.32)

E=hn (from Plank's energy-frequency law) (QUANTUM) (10.33)

l=h/p (from DeBroglie wavelength-momentum law) (QUANTUM) (10.34)

Therefore, c/n = h/p = h/(mc) (using 10.32, 10.34, and 10.31).

Thus, c/(E/h) = h/(mc) (using 10.33), or E=mc^2.

Thus, a very simple derivation of the energy-mass relationship is possible from quantum mechanics.

For Further Information:

physics/9809042 29 Sep 1998