5-1-04 I-90 interchange meeting on 4-29-04
6-16-04 I-90 interchange meeting on 6-10-04
8-4-04 I-90 interchange meeting on 7-29-04
6-29-05 I-90 interchange study resumes
LETTER to the Editor of The Press, 3-16-05, by George Bliss
With the Crocker Road and SR 83 interchanges only four miles apart, any interchange between them is a safety hazard. They are too close.
It is not that Crocker Road is so far from Avon; it is simply that Westlake has refused to discuss access to Crocker Road from the west. An Avon official quoted Mayor Clough some time ago as having said "over my dead body" when approached for his cooperation.
This is why several of us feel that the Crocker interchange should be moved to the county line so that everyone will have access to it, and simply close the [existing] Crocker interchange.
Interstate 90 is a transcontinental highway, not a local causeway.
Westlake and Avon should share pushing for state/federal support for making Clemens, Just Imagine Drive and Chester Road a ... five lane thoroughfare between the two interchanges. This would also relieve much of the congestion on Detroit Road.
By George O. Bliss, Avon
NEWS ARTICLE from The Chronicle Telegram, 4-5-04, By Brad Dicken, Staff Writer
``AVON -- A drive down Jaycox or Lear-Nagel roads between Detroit and Chester roads can be pretty relaxing right now. Only a handful of homes and businesses line the two roads and few drivers travel them other than local residents.
That could all change once a traffic engineer completes a study later this year that examines whether one of those roads would make an ideal spot for a new Interstate 90 exit.
Avon Mayor Jim Smith said he thinks the interchange is necessary to sustain the rapid growth of not only his city, but also Avon Lake and North Ridgeville.
Last year, he said, Avon built 403 homes, North Ridgeville built 422 and Avon Lake built 265. Those numbers show no signs of slowing down. "Within the next three to five years, the need is going to become greater and greater," Smith said ...
The $148,000 study, funded by the city and several local businesses, is looking not only at the need for the interchange, but when it will be needed and the best location. Council has never been able to agree on the best location for the interchange.
Howard Maier, executive director of the Northeast Ohio Area-wide Coordinating Agency, said his agency's board has had little to do with the interchange, but will eventually have to vote on whether to allow it to be built. It would also have to be approved by the federal government. But from previous interchange projects he's worked on, Maier doesn't expect the process to run completely smoothly. "Anytime we have made modifications to the interstate system, there's controversy," he said. "We'll just have to deal with it as it comes along." ...''
Contact Brad Dicken at firstname.lastname@example.org
NEWS ARTICLE from The Morning Journal, 4-14-04, By Krista Schultz
''AVON -- ... TranSystems [Corporation] will evaluate the area bounded by Detroit Road to the south, Walker Road to the north, SR-83 to the west, and Crocker Road to the east ...
The first city stakeholder meeting will be April 29 at 7 pm, [Mayor Jim] Smith said. The meeting will be held at Avon City Hall on Chester Road ...''
NEWS ARTICLE from The Chronicle-Telegram, 4-30-04, By Nick Houser
``I-90 plan gets public feedback
AVON -- For the first time, supporters and opponents of a proposed Interstate-90 interchange gathered Thursday [4-29-04] to discuss the much-debated transportation project.
TransSystems Corporation, the engineering company hired by the city to look at the feasibility of a new exit, led the meeting attended by more than 50 people, including residents, business owners and public officials.
Among the objectives discussed were the current overburdened roadways and the impact of an even heavier flow of traffic from a new interchange ...
Susan Swartz of TransSystems assured [everyone] that everyone's voice would be heard ...
Ideally a new exit would be placed at or near Jaycox or Lear Nagle roads, but some such as homeowner Laura Rouse are keeping a careful eye on where any construction may occur.
She moved to the city nearly a year ago and lives close to Lear Nagel Road. "I understand this is need to help the businesses, but I'm hoping this has as little impact on the residents as possible," she said. "I'm certainly happy they are having these meetings and making a lot of objectives early." ...
TSC will hold the second of its four public meetings at 7 p.m. on June 10 at city hall. Swartz said she expects the study to be completed in sixth months.''
Contact Nick Houser at email@example.com.
COMMENT, 5-1-04, by Taylor J. Smith
First of all, I would like to commend TranSystems Corporation for considering a variety of opinions before much money is spent on a study.
Question: How will cars from Red Tail travel to a proposed interchange. How will cars from Schwartz Road travel to the proposed interchange?
A news article in the April 14, 2004, edition of the Morning Journal states: "TranSystems will evaluate the area bounded by Detroit Road to the south, Walker Road to the north, SR-83 to the west, and Crocker Road to the east." This is a problem. Failure to evaluate Avon south of Detroit Road would be a critical omission.
An interchange plan was presented by a URS traffic engineer to the Avon Planning Commission on June 12, 2002. URS recommended that Avon put five lanes of pavement on Detroit Road to carry cars to a proposed I-90 interchange near Nagel Road. How these cars were supposed to reach Detroit Road remained a mystery.
On November 4, 2003, Avon voters rejected the URS recommendation by amending the Avon City Charter to read: "Neither Council nor Planning Commission shall act to widen the pavement on Detroit Road ... to more than thirty-six feet, or to divide said pavement into more than three lanes ..."
In my opinion, the URS study was a waste of $40,000 because Avon's Master Thoroughfare Plan south of Detroit Road was not evaluated. Assuming the best case, with all links completed, will Avon's Master Thoroughfare Plan work at build-out? Will it be able to adequately move cars to a proposed interchange? Let us not waste $148,000 on another study which fails to answer these questions.
Vehicle access streets are a less expensive alternative to adding lanes to Detroit Road and to Avon's other original country roads. A vehicle access street has no private driveways and is designed to move cars around Avon. No sidewalks, curbs, water lines, gas lines, telephone lines, or sanitary sewer lines would be required.
The TranSystems study must address north-south traffic. Widening Nagel Road to five lanes would create a safety hazard for the church and two schools located on Nagel Road. A north-south vehicle access street intersecting Middleton should be built as part of an interchange project. This street should not run through St. Joseph's cemetary.
Middleton east of Jaycox should be built as a vehicle access street to carry east-west interchange traffic. Only two lanes of pavement would be required except at intersections. Middleton should be connected to Avon Road and serve as a south marginal road for the interchange.
Two lanes of pavement should be added to Chester Road/Just Imagine Drive to carry interchange traffic. Chester should be extended to Clemens in Westlake to provide an alternate route into Avon and to connect to the Crocker Road I-90 interchange. The widened Chester Rd. would serve as a north marginal road for the interchange.
These additional lanes of pavement on Middleton, on the north-south vehicle access street, and on Chester should be built before or at the same time an interchange is constructed.
A $148,000 TranSystems study will be deficient unless it answers the pressing question of how cars will travel to a proposed interchange. It is possible that an interchange recommendation will be voted on by the citizens of Avon. If people are not told how their cars can reach a proposed interchange, they will vote against it. If people are fully informed about a comprehensive plan, they will vote for it.
NEWS ARTICLE from The Sun, 5-6-04, By BRIAN HORN, Staff Writer
``AVON -- ... TranSystems Corp., the engineering company retained by [Avon] to research the feasibility for the project, will examine the need for an I-90 interchange by looking at the status of the area as if no action was taken.
"We are going to be looking at the traffic consequences of doing nothing and we are going to be looking at the economic development consequences of doing nothing and examining the problems from the perspective of what happens if we do nothing," project manager Susan Swartz said.
TranSystems said the study will examine the adequacy of the existing access, develop alternatives to improve deficiencies, obtain public input, and ultimately develop a strategy for improvements ...''
NEWS ARTICLE from the EcoCity Digest, 7-04
The next I-90 battle
The City of Avon has commissioned a $150,000 study of its I-90 access needs, with many people suggesting that a new interchange is needed to accommodate current and future land development. [There are also many people who oppose any road "improvement" which will concentrate traffic on Avon's original country roads, especially Detroit Road. ]
The Lorain County community has approved creation of more than 4,000 residential lots since 1996 and anticipates an additional 25,000 residents over the next decade. Major commercial development interests are also interested in building along Avon's I-90 corridor. As a result, Avon officials say they're anticipating congestion problems 10 to 20 years into the future and are proactively researching the best course of action now.
The city's move will force the region's decisionmakers to once again confront the relationship between suburban sprawl and public spending for highways. In the late '90s during a NOACA board debate about the implications of widening I-90 to three lanes in the area, Lorain County Commissioner Betty Blair bluntly defined the challenge of acting regionally when political boundaries are strictly local. In response to concerns about promoting suburban sprawl that were raised by Cuyahoga County representatives, Blair stated, "Your sprawl is my economic development!"
The fact that Blair was president of the NOACA board at the time highlighted the fact that NOACA is constrained in acting truly regionally by the powerful self-interest of its locally elected representatives. Though many in the private sector are calling for regional cooperation to enhance economic competitiveness, no one is elected to serve the region as a whole.
Fast forward to 2004, when having three lanes in each direction on I-90 now makes it possible to consider additional interchanges. The study area's 2,300 acres would certainly yield more tax revenues to the City of Avon with a new interchange. [ The study area is grossly inadequate because it does not, for example, address the question `How will cars reach the proposed interchange from Red Tail or Schwartz Road?']
But is spending millions of dollars in federal and state money for another interchange economically, socially or environmentally responsible from a regional perspective? In a region whose population has remained essentially flat for more than 40 years, what's the net benefit of a public investment that simply shuffles population and jobs from one local taxing district to another?
It's obvious why Avon's council has commissioned a study that will call for new infrastructure investment within its borders. But what's less clear is the region's responsibility to respond by approving public dollars for such a project.
Cuyahoga County representatives have already signaled their concern, suggesting that a 'growth management' strategy should be considered that includes long-range goals for land use as well as transportation. They've also requested a report from NOACA staff on regional goals regarding new interchange proposals.
NOACA's dedicated planning staff are again faced with the unenviable task of serving many masters. This I-90 access study will provide them with the clearest possible opportunity to define public investment policies that serve the best social, economic, and environmental interests of the region as a whole.
3500 Lorain Avenue, Suite 301, Cleveland OH 44113
NEWS ARTICLE from The Press, 6-16-04, By Julie A. Short
``Concerns, alternatives voiced regarding I-90 interchange
AVON -- The crowd might have been smaller, but the topic remains large as more than 30 stakeholders gathered on June 10 to continue discussions regarding the proposed I-90 interchange.
Susan Swartz, representing TranSystems (commissioned by the city to conduct the study), began the 90-minute meeting recapping what was discussed during the April gathering. The meeting was the second in a series of four culminating with an open public meeting once the alternatives have been determined, but before a preferred alternative is chosen.
In attendance again were city officials from Bay Village, Avon, Avon Lake, Sheffield Village and Westlake, local residents and business leaders, representatives from Cuyahoga and Lorain counties, the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) and the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA) ...
"The PM rush hour is the critical hour," Aaron Grilliot of TranSystems pointed out during a virtual enhancement of the areas via a computer. "Upwards of 500 feet of traffic is backing up on Clemens to get to I-90. Traffic is also all the way down the ramp on I-90." ...
The group began brainstorming alternative solutions to ease traffic. Items outlined include improving existing interchanges and arterials; constructing new interchanges at existing arterials and at a new arterial; add new connections and improving connections, as well as other choices.
"We already have two interchanges that are five miles apart," Avon resident George Bliss said. "We should not spend the money for a proposed new interchange and [instead] use it to enhance Clemens Road to Just Imagine Drive [Chester Rd.]."
Other suggestions brought up from the audience members included widening Detroit Road and widening SR 83 south of Detroit Road. The city of Avon already had plans to widen Detroit Road to three lanes from SR 83 to SR 611 to begin sometime next year. [Adding this relatively short additional lane will cost over a million dollars and depends on a $800,000 grant from the State. The City of Westlake has requested $26 million from ODOT to widen 2.5 miles of Detroit Rd. from Crocker to Columbia to five lanes, despite Westlake having a reserve of $80 million. Widening existing roads is very expensive.]
"We should also consider additional left turn lanes at the ramp exiting to SR 83," Avon resident Jack Smith said. "Right now there is only one [left turn] lane and traffic is backing up onto the highway [at the peak PM rush hour."
[Additional turn lanes should be built at both the SR83 and SR611 off ramps. For example, I90 traffic from the east, exiting at SR83, now has only one off-ramp left turn lane leading to two south bound lanes, and has only one off-ramp right turn lane leading to two north bound lanes.]
John Kahl, chief executive officer for Henkel Consumer Adhesives has been outspoken regarding the need for an interchange and recommended that it be placed somewhere between Nagel Road and the Cuyahoga County line. [ George Bliss recommended that the interchange be built on the county line so that Avon and Westlake would be equally served.]
An audience member suggested constructing a Single Point Urban Intersection (SPUI) at an existing interchange whereby traffic existing from all directions off I-90 would meet at one intersection. Traffic exiting to the right would loop to the right before the intersection into traffic (after yielding), never making a hard right turn. The light would affect only traffic exiting to the left.
Concerns regarding an interchange were also discussed with regards to the impact on residential streets. Several Avon residents suggested constructing a "north access only" ramp off I-90 to service the industrial population. Zoning changes, as well the impact on schools, houses and churches along Nagel Road was mentioned.
The next stakeholders meeting is scheduled for July 29 at 7 p.m. at Avon City Hall.''
NOACA's 10 Transportation Goals
Along with fulfilling its metropolitan planning requirements, NOACA also serves Northeast Ohio with special transportation studies and programs that address mobility for all of the region's residents. These planning efforts mesh well with the region's ten transportation goals, as NOACA seeks to address traffic congestion, safety, the integration of transportation modes, and aesthetics.
NEWS ARTICLE from The Press, 9-8-04, By Julie A. Short
``Midday traffic study puts complaints to rest
It's well known that getting around town during certain times of the day is not an easy task. High on the list of complaints in most cities is traffic congestion and not being able to get from point A to point B in a timely manner.
We at The PRESS are conducting our own study to see for ourselves what it's like to get around town. Last week we concentrated our efforts on morning travel. The following is the second installment dealing with getting around town during the lunch hour.
I don't mean to pick on employees from Avon-based Henkel Consumer Adhesives, but I've sat in many city meetings where representatives from Henkel have said that it is difficult for their employees to run errands and pick-up lunch during their lunch breaks. They singled out getting to the Commons on numerous occasions.
I set out on Aug. 31 to see for myself if I could run a few errands, pick up lunch for a co-worker and myself and be back to the office within an hour. For the record, I almost did it in a half hour.
I left Henkel's parking lot off Just Imagine Drive at 11:50 p.m. and headed to the dry cleaners to pick up some business shirts I dropped off last week during the morning portion of this traffic experiment. The dry cleaner is located within French Creek Square.
Distance: 3.3 miles
I spent 2 minutes and 26 seconds at the dry cleaners. From there, I headed to Avon Commons and Subway to order lunch.
Distance: 0.5 miles
Surprisingly, Subway was not crowded. I ordered a wrap sandwich and a salad to go. I spent 6 minutes and three seconds in Subway.
From there I drove the short distance to the National City Bank branch that is within the Commons.
Distance: 0.2 miles
Time spent at the bank drive-thru: 3:52
Finally, I was ready to head back to "work" at Henkel.
Distance: 3.1 miles
I was back in the Henkel parking lot by 12:24 p.m.
I completed all of my tasks in approximately a half hour. I could have stopped at Old Navy to do some more back-to-school shopping ...''
NEWS ARTICLE from The Press, 8-4-04, By Julie A. Short
``Stakeholders continue discussions regarding I-90 interchange
AVON -- Avon's rapid growth placed the proposed I-90 interchange on a slight detour as the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA) and TranSystems (hired by city of Avon to conduct interchange study) are still coordinating their efforts on traffic projections.
The figures were not available in time for the third of five stakeholder meetings [held on 7-29-04] regarding the interchange.
"We need to be able to develop a projection," Susan Swartz, TranSystem Project Manager said during the July 29 meeting. "That's the challenge for us right now. We are working with NOACA. The model we use for traffic patterns is currently being updated by NOACA. We were supposed to have the data by July 23. It may be en route.
"If NOACA doesn't accept our traffic projections, we have wasted out time."
A representative from NOACA defended his organization's purpose by stating that because the traffic forecasts are currently based on the 1990 census, the model doesn't forecast Avon appropriately because of the rapid growth in the last few years.
Since the number one concern for most of the stakeholders in attendance is traffic, Swartz promised data would be available as soon as possible and suggested the meeting move forward to discuss alternatives mentioned at previous meetings.
"One thing to consider is if you improve ["improve" in this case meaning "widen"] the arterial streets, do you help traffic?" she asked the 40-plus in attendance. "Suggestions have been made to widen a number of streets through town in lieu of an interchange. Is that the best alternative?" [Only widening Chester Rd. and connecting it to Clemens in Westake has been proposed as an alternative to a new interchange.]
Jack Smith, President of the Avon Historical Society, reminded the audience that per Avon's Charter, Detroit Road cannot be widened to more than three lanes. [Smith said that personally he will continue to cppose any interchange plan which concentrates traffic on Detroit Road.]
The city already has plans to widen Detroit Road to create a center turning lane beginning in 2005. [This lane will be added to Detroit Rd. between SR83 and SR611, at a cost of $1.2 million, with $800,000 of that coming from a grant.]
More than a dozen residents were in attendance from the Willow Creek subdivision off Avon Road. The residential development would most greatly be impacted should an interchange be placed near Nagel Road.
Willow Creek resident Laura Rouse presented Swartz with a packet of information regarding crime and health problems that stem from expanding highway systems and roads.
"There are more than 24 studies documenting health hazards caused by pollution from cars, trucks and other vehicles," Rouse read from an e-mail.
"A Denver study shows that children living near busy roads are six to eight times more likely to develop leukemia and other forms of cancer. Per pound, a child inhales more air than an adult and a child is more active than an adult, so with greater activity there's more air intake and more exposure.
Expanding roads systems threatens children playing at schools in the area. It also leads to lung cancer and premature deaths."
Swartz showed aerial computer models of a number of proposed interchange area alternatives including constructing SPUI's (single point urban interchanges) whereby traffic curves and no hard left or right turns are taken.
Avon resident George Bliss offered a creative solution to the entire interchange dilemma.
"I say close the interchange at Crocker Road in Westlake and put the interchange at the county line" he said. "It belongs at the county line. I also say expand Clemens Road."
Many in attendance wanted to know Westlake's position on the interchange; and, according to Planning Coordinator Jim Piazza, Westlake was been given the opportunity to respond; and they could not comment until they know the outcome of the study.
Susan Urig, a former Avon resident now living in Alaska asked property and business owners in attendance what they plan to do with their property in the future ... "We never here from the owners," she said. [Property within 1/2 mile of the proposed interchange could be zoned commercial for big box stores. This land, currently zoned industrial, is selling for $25,000 - $50,000 per acre. With an interchange and commercial zoning, it would sell for $100,000 - $200,000 per acre.]
No meeting date was set for the fourth meeting, but Swartz hopes within the next month or two the group can convene again.''
NEWS ARTICLE from the Scripps Howard News Service, 9-9-04, By Lee Bowman
``Air pollution stunts lung development in teenagers
Teens who grew up in smoggy neighborhoods are nearly five times as likely to have significantly reduced lung function compared with those the same age who lived in low-pollution communities, according to a study published today.
"When we began this study, we had no idea we would find effects on the lung this serious," said Dr. John Peters, director of the Southern California Environmental Health Sciences Center in Los Angeles and senior author of the study published in The New England Journal of Medicine.
Between 1993 and 2001, Peters and a team from the University of Southern California School of Medicine tracked levels of major pollutants in 12 Southern California communities. At the same time, they followed the respiratory health of 1,759 children as they progressed from fourth through 12th grade.
"Teenagers in smoggy communities were nearly five times as likely to have clinically low lung function (less than 80 percent of the function expected for their age) compared to teens living in low-pollution communities," said W. James Gauderman, an associate professor of preventive medicine at USC and lead author of the study.
In healthy people, lungs grow to their full capacity until about age 20, and then begin a slow, lifelong decline. Adults begin to lose about 1 percent of lung function each year after their early 20s.
The scientists tracked the children's lung function by visiting their schools each year and testing capacity. For instance, someone with poor lung function can't exhale and blow up a balloon as quickly or fully as someone with good lung function.
"Lung development in teenagers determines their breathing capacity and health for the rest of their lives," Peters said. "The potential long-term effects of reduced lung function are alarming. It's second only to smoking as a risk factor for mortality. As lung function decreases, the risk of respiratory disease and heart attacks increases." ...
The scientists found poorer lung development in teenagers who had lived in communities with higher average levels of nitrogen dioxide, acid vapor, small particulate matter (less than 2.5 micrometers, or 1/10th the diameter of a human hair) and elemental carbon.
"These are pollutants that all derive from vehicle emissions and the combustion of fossil fuels," Gauderman said. ...''
NEWS ARTICLE from The Morning Journal, 7-30-04, By JENNIFER HICKIN, Morning Journal Writer
``Ideas are tossed around for new I-90 interchange
AVON -- Preliminary plans on where a new Interstate 90 interchange could be built in the city brought discussion and more suggestions at a committee meeting on the topic last night [7-29-04].
Plans for improving existing interchanges at Crocker Road and SR 83, creating a new interchange at or near Jaycox or Nagel roads and improving the city's road system were presented to members of the stakeholder committee working to recommend the best alternative for improving traffic flow in Avon.
Made up of members representing resident, business and government interests, the committee is studying whether building an I-90 interchange in Avon is necessary or if traffic concerns, now and in the future, can be addressed by some other means.
The alternatives presented last night were only preliminary ideas based on earlier meetings and were meant to get feedback and further the discussion, according to Susan Swartz of TranSystems Corp., the company handling the interchange study.
Swartz said they are waiting on up-to-date traffic information from the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency before these and other alternatives can be analyzed in relation to impact on traffic and the city.
Along with all the ideas relating to building a new interchange, not building is always an option, she said.
Concerns brought up by committee members last night related to noise, increased crime and possible health hazards of a new interchange. It was also suggested that bicycle and pedestrian traffic as well as widening existing roadways to handle traffic be studied ...
[ Widening existing roads is enormously expensive and must be paid for by all the taxpayers of Avon. What is needed are new "vehicle access" streets with no private driveways paid for by developer impact fees in accordance with the Ohio Supreme Court Beaver Creek decision.]
Last July , City Council passed a resolution in support of a feasibility study that would look at the idea of a new I-90 interchange. The study will look at whether an interchange is needed, possible locations and its impact.
If the city does go forward with an interchange, the process -- including time for studies, design and acquiring property -- takes about four or five years.
Another committee meeting is expected to be held in another couple of months.''
NEWS ARTICLE from The Press, 6-29-05, By Julie A. Short
[The next 'stakeholders' meeting is on Thursday, 9-29-05, at 7 pm in the Avon City Hall at 36086 Chester Rd.]
``Finished transportation model puts interchange study back on track
AVON -- After months of waiting, city officials recently learned that the much anticipated Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) and Northern Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA) transportation models have been completed. This information was vital to aid in the completion of an interchange study for the possible construction of an I-90 interchange somewhere between the Cuyahoga County line and SR 83.
The city of Avon initiated an interchange justification in the fall of 2003, They enlisting the services of TranSystems, a traffic study company out of Dublin, Ohio, to analyze and assess the possible need and location of an interchange. The company studied the city's traffic patterns and congestion during various hours coupled with data from the building department for housing starts in an effort to try to project future problems with the infrastructure of the city's roads.
ODOT and the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency (NOACA) provided TranSystems with guidelines and procedures that needed to be followed for both agencies to properly evaluate the ... data. Currently NOACA has a transportation model based on census data that provides projections for traffic needs, issues and concerns up until 2020.
According to Avon Planning Coordinator Jim Piazza ... TranSystems ... put the study on hold until current information could be provided by ODOT and NOACA. City officials and Susan Swartz from TranSystems met two weeks ago to discuss the findings and how to proceed with the information.
"They (TranSystems) are working on the model out of their Boston office," Piazza said. "We should hear word on a timetable soon. "I don't expect any stakeholder meetings to resume until early September with completed information from the new models. The models will better address if we need an interchange or not, and if we need one, then here are the possible locations."
Several stakeholders meetings had been held last year ... During those meetings alternatives to alleviate traffic patterns, such as other north/south and east/west roads that could be either rebuilt or constructed to help traffic congestion, were also discussed ...
The city is spending $150,000 to conduct the interchange study, with several local businesses contributing.
Once a new timeline for stakeholder meetings becomes officials, the information will be printed in The PRESS. Swartz did not return calls prior to deadline.''
More Documents Relating to the June 8, 1998, Decision Against Avon
Newspaper Record of XXXXX/Jacobs in Avon