Archaeological excavation of the Burrell Orchard site

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Brian Redmond speaks on the Burrell Orchard dig

Brian Redmond Archaeology Blog

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"Native Americans and the Burrell Orchard,"

by Dr. Brian Redmond, Curator and Head of Archaeology,

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History,

7 pm on 7-10-08 at the French Creek Nature Center,

4530 Colorado Ave., Sheffield Village, Ohio

Phone 440-949-5200

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NEWS ARTICLE from The Press, 6-25-08, By John Edwards

``Archaeologists dig into Sheffield's ancient Native American cultures Sheffield Village

Northeastern Lorain County's towns of Avon, Avon Lake, Sheffield Village and Sheffield Lake were settled by Americans of European descent around the end of the War of 1812 -- after the Indians left. But the area was inhabited, at various times and by various Native peoples for about 10,000 years before that -- from the time the last ice age retreated toward Hudson Bay.

From the end of the French and Indian War until after the American Revolution, Lorain County was part of Indian Territory, with the east bank of the Cuyahoga River designated as the western boundary of the U.S. by the Treaty of Greenville.

Most of the area's First Nations inhabitants in 1812, Delaware (Leni Lenape) and Wyandotte (Huron) refugees plus some Miami, Sauk and Fox, Mingoes and isolated bands of Ojibwa and Ottawa trappers and traders, sided with the British during the war and moved west or to Canada when the war ended in 1814.

The Erie Nation, inhabitants of this area when the first French fur traders and Jesuit missionaries arrived and named the Great Lake after them in the 17th Century, were annihilated in a war with the Iroquois League (mainly the Seneca from western New York) in the 1660's. War with the Iroquois also decimated the Huron Nation, who became the Wendat or Wyandotte [Wyandot] and the Leni Lenape, known later as Delaware.

After wiping out the Erie, the Iroquois gave northern Ohio to their southern Ohio "cousins" the Shawnee, who allowed tribes pushed westward by white settlement to use it until Shawnee Chief Tecumseh's multi-tribal uprising ended (along with the War of 1812) at the Battle of the Thames in southern Ontario.

Long before the Erie, even before the Woodland Culture peoples and the Mound Builders, "Archaic" (6-7,000 years ago) and "Paleo" (7-11,000 years ago) Indian groups migrated through or lived in this area.

Several sites in our area have been "dug" by archaeologists seeking to learn as much as possible about those ancient people. Since the 1960's digs in Black River and French Creek reservations have been conducted by Cleveland State University and the Universities of Akron and Toledo have revealed information about how those ancient people lived in post-ice age Ohio.

Burrell House
In September of 2000, the Underground Railroad Association sent a marker to the Burrell Homestead, The Burrell Homestead was the last station in Lorain County. Also see Jabez Burrell,

One such dig is underway now at the Burrell Orchard site in French Creek Reservation, under the auspices of the Lorain County MetroParks, the Sheffield Village Historical Society and the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.

Led by Dr. Brian Redmond, the Museum's curator of archaeology, a group of museum archaeologists including Brian Scanlon and Glenn Boatman, assisted by students from Hiram College and Case Western Reserve University, are carefully exhuming flint and other stone tools, projectile points, fragments of wooden and bone tools, shards of pottery and other artifacts.

Five fire pits, middens or storage/trash pit sites are carefully being dug, five centimeters at a time. Any artifacts are rid of excess dirt by sifting at nearby tripods. The evidence of ancient societies is carefully measured, removed, sifted and transported to the museum to be cataloged and studied.

Redmond will explain the dig process and give a preliminary report on the extent of the site and any artifacts discovered in a Thursday, July 10 session, "Native Americans and the Burrell Orchard," at the French Creek Nature Center, 4530 Colorado Avenue, (440) 949-5200. Redmond's report, 7-8:30 p.m., is free and open to the public.

No burials have been found at the Burrell Orchard site. Redmond said that if any are found, they would be photographed, measured and then reburied with any human remains undisturbed. Remains found at nearby digs in the past, including the Eiden, Burrell Fort and White Fort sites in Black River and French Creek Reservations, have since been reburied.''

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NEWS ARTICLE from The Morning Journal, 6-18-08, by Jeff Green, Morning Journal Writer

``SHEFFIELD VILLAGE -- ... Carla Wible, [of Avon, a high school science teacher at Olmsted Falls] is taking part in the dig to fulfill a graduate credit. She hopes to find a projectile point; but even if she doesn't, she said the experience is thrilling.

"I've run in French Creek Park for 22 years, just across the way," she said. "I like to imagine the history of the area." ...''

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NEWS ARTICLE from The Chronicle-Telegram, 6-19-08, by Special to The Chronicle

``Digging for answers in Sheffield

SHEFFIELD -- From afar, the scene looks a lot like a craft fair.

Six bright blue canopies dot a small meadow tucked between a field of tall grass and a forested area. People dressed in casual clothing mill around each tent.

But the crafts here weren't made by neighborhood jewelers. The pieces of pottery and projectile points were left by prehistoric families thousands of years ago, and the canopies cover the shallow rectangles in which the artifacts were unearthed.

Welcome to the summer home of Archaeology in Action, a field archaeology program in its 14th year through the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.

This year's dig, which started Monday, is taking place at the Burrell Orchard in the French Creek Metro Parks Reservation. The four-week project gives anyone over the age of 16 the opportunity to work with experienced field archaeologists and discover lost pieces of history ...

Ciera Herron, a Case Western Reserve senior from Maryland, is an intern on this summer's dig. On Tuesday, the group she supervised found two fragments of something. They called over Brian Redmond, the site leader, and John Otis Hower, chairman of archaeology at the museum, to investigate.

"Do you know what this is?" Redmond asked, holding up one fragment. Herron guessed that it was part of a projectile point, maybe the tip. After a moment, Redmond placed the two fragments together, and the base of a projectile point made itself clear.

Such points are common around the orchard, according to Redmond. Most of the artifacts that are being found are tools or bits of pottery, indicating a place where people once lived.

One tool found at the site was an intact flint drill, a pointed piece of flint that is attached to a stick and usually used like a screwdriver. Another was a celt, a woodworking tool that looks like a hatchet without a handle.

All of these pieces are being found a foot or less under the surface, but they are 4,000 to 5,000 years old, said Redmond. The location of the orchard on a ridge top means that the soil has easily washed or blown away over the years, but the artifacts have stayed in place.

Archaeology in Action has explored many sites around Ohio, including White Fort in the Black River Metro Parks Reservation just north of Elyria. The Metro Parks welcomes the visitors, and the chance to preserve history in the county ...''

Contact Alison Dietz at metro@chroniclet.com.

Form more information, see www.cmnh.org/site/ResearchandCollections_Archaeology_ArchaeologyInAction.aspx

``Archaeology In Action for Adults

Weekly sessions; Monday through Friday; June 9 through July 3, 2008

8:30 am to 4 pm each day, rain or shine

Instructors:

Dr. Brian Redmond, Curator and Head of Archaeology

Brian Scanlan, Supervisor of Archaeology Field Programs

In the summer of 2008, the Department of Archaeology will carry out test excavations at the Burrell Orchard site. The site is located in the French Creek Reservation of the Lorain County Metroparks in Sheffield, Ohio. It is situated on a high and narrow shale ridge overlooking French Creek and is covered by an overgrown fruit orchard. At the extreme south end of the property is the Burrell house, a ca. 1820 homestead that is now owned and managed by the Lorain County Metroparks.

Burrell Orchard (33Ln15) was entered into the Ohio Archaeological Inventory in 1975 following limited test excavations by CMNH staff in 1971. This investigation recovered a distinctive type of long and narrow (lanceolate) spear point which resembles Late Paleoindian (ca. 8500-6500 B.C.) artifacts known from the Great Plains and the Upper Great Lakes. Since such early occupations are poorly documented in Ohio, the similarity between the Burrell Orchard points and these early types led to the listing of the site on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.

The 1971 excavations also recovered Early Woodland (ca. 1000 B.C.-100 B.C.) points, stone axes, grinding implements, grit-tempered pottery, and butchered animal bone (food) remains. One pit feature was discovered and found to contain thin grit-tempered pottery and small, triangular arrow points which belong to the Late Woodland period (ca. A.D. 800-1200) ...''

For more information, contact Brian Redmond at bredmond@cmnh.org.

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History

1 Wade Oval Drive, University Circle

Cleveland, OH 44106-1767

Phone 216.231.4600 or 800.317.9155

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brianredmondarchaeology.blogspot.com/2008/04/on-to-burrell-orchard-in-2008.html

Archaeology Blog, 4-29-08, by Brian Redmond

``On to Burrell Orchard in 2008

In the summer of 2008, the Department of Archaeology will carry out test excavations at the Burrell Orchard site. The site is located in the French Creek Reservation of the Lorain County Metroparks in Sheffield, Ohio. It is situated on a high and narrow shale ridge overlooking French Creek and is covered by an overgrown fruit orchard. At the extreme south end of the property is the Burrell house, a ca. 1820 homestead that is now owned and managed by the Lorain County Metroparks.

Burrell Orchard (33Ln15) was entered into the Ohio Archaeological Inventory in 1975 following limited test excavations by CMNH staff in 1971. This investigation recovered a distinctive type of long and narrow (lanceolate) spear point which resembles Late Paleoindian (ca. 8500-6500 B.C.) artifacts known from the Great Plains and the Upper Great Lakes.

Since such early occupations are poorly documented in Ohio, the similarity between the Burrell Orchard points and these early types led to the listing of the site on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.

The 1971 excavations also recovered Early Woodland (ca. 1000 B.C.-100 B.C.) points, stone axes, grinding implements, grit-tempered pottery, and butchered animal bone (food) remains. One pit feature was discovered and found to contain thin grit-tempered pottery and small, triangular arrow points which belong to the Late Woodland period (ca. A.D. 800-1200).

Stemmed point (left), stemmed lanceolate point (center) and a drill (right) from the 1971 excavations at Burrell Orchard

More intensive excavations were carried out around the Burrell Homestead and in the orchard by archaeologists from the University of Akron under the direction of Dr. John Marwitt in the summer of 1987.

Examination of the archived field notes indicate that numerous test units and a few trenches were placed within and around the foundations of former out-buildings (the barn and grainery) in the vicinity of the Burrell House. Some small test units were placed along the western bluff edge to the northwest of the house.

In the Orchard, at least 15 1.0 x 1.0 m to 2.0 x 2.0 m units were excavated along a north-south-oriented transects. These units revealed what appear to be stratified midden deposits below a shallow plow zone.

At least five test units exposed small to medium-sized, basin-shaped pits and hearth features and a few post molds. The deepest pit features extended to nearly 80 cm beneath the surface. Diagnostic artifacts were not described in detail, but the report concludes that at least four occupations are represented in the orchard.

These are

  • a late Paleoindian component represented by thin, lanceolate and stemmed lanceolate points;

  • a transitional Late Archaic-Early Woodland component;

  • a later Early Woodland ?Adena Culture? occupation;

  • and finally a Late Woodland (Late Prehistoric period?) component.

    Unfortunately we are unable to verify this chronological sequence since the collections resulting from this excavation have net yet been located.

    In 2008, we hope to test the Late Paleoindian affiliation of Burrell Orchard and to learn more about the Woodland period settlements. The first objective will be met by the identification of undisturbed pit features or midden (trash) layers with associated lanceolate projectile points. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal or bone samples found with the lanceolate points should provide a more precise age for this earliest occupation.

    The excavation of small test units across the site will help to identify the sizes and extents of each prehistoric campsite or settlement. Finally, the excavation of a sample of pits and other features will provide information on the prehistoric activities and life ways of the ancient inhabitants of Burrell Orchard.''

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    brianredmondarchaeology.blogspot.com/2008/06/finding-midden-layer-at-burrell-orchard.html

    Archaeology Blog, 6-15-08, by Brian Redmond

    ``Exploring the Midden Layer

    By the end of our first week at Burrell Orchard, we identified at least one midden stratum below a 20-25 cm thick plow zone. This midden consists of scattered charcoal, burned bone, and small pieces of FCR (fire-cracked rock). Chert (flint) debitage is present, but in moderate quantities below the plow zone, and historic artifacts are nearly absent.

    We are just beginning to identify possible features which may intrude into (through) the midden zone, perhaps from a later occupation. These possible pit features (such as the ones shown [above]) appear as dark zones within the midden stratum (brown soil) on the floors of the excavation units.

    Only one unit has produced pottery, which consists of relatively thin, grit-tempered, cordmarked and plain body sherds. I suspect that this pottery is derived from one of the aforementioned pit features, but we will see. Otherwise, the midden is aceramic (without pottery) which suggests that it dates prior to 1000 B.C., which is the approximate date when pottery begins to be used by Native Americans in northern Ohio. This same excavation unit also produced two celts (ground stone axes).

    We are very pleased that several fragments of lanceolate points have been found in situ (in place) in two excavation units. These fragments exhibit the parallel thinning flakes and marginal retouch (sharpening of the edges) that is typical of the purported late Paleoindian points found previously at this site.

    A surprising find was this broken sandstone grinding stone or mortar. It has the characteristic dished-out surface, as well as deep incisions on both faces which were made by sharpening wooden or bone tools. This fragment is about 15 cm across.

    All these fragments -- including the point tip shown below -- are made of "Nellie" chert from Coshocton County. This same stone was used to make most of the lanceolate points found at other sites in northern Ohio. We still have not found anything in association with these point fragments -- such as charcoal or animal bone -- which can be radiocarbon dated. Nevertheless, we have found nothing to suggest that these points did not originate within this midden stratum. Hopefully, more answers will come next week!''

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    brianredmondarchaeology.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.html

    Archaeology Blog, 7-4-08, by Brian Redmond

    ``Smudge Pits and Hide-smoking?

    At about 60 cm below datum, our excavations reached the base of the midden layer. But this was not the end of our discoveries. In all three of our 2.0 x 2.0 meter excavations units, we have found a number of small basins containing lots of charcoal and some burned deer bone.

    These pits stand out clearly against the yellowish-brown, clayey subsoil as shown in the image below. In cross-section, these pits exhibit dense layers of charcoal mixed with soil which seem to concentrate on the bottoms of the features.

    The image [above] shows a section of burned deer antler protruding from the profile of one such pit. Notice the dark band of charcoal at the bottom.

    I suspect that these features are the remains of smudge pits, small fire pits used by Native Americans to smoke (preserve) deer hides. The use of smudge pits is well-documented for historical Indian societies across North America. During the time of maize agriculture, smudge pits contained charred maize cobs.

    In our smudge pits, only charred wood or hickory nut shells have been found, which suggests that these features date to the time before maize farming. In fact it is very likely that these pits date to the Late Archaic occupation of our site.''

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    www.wgte.org/lakeerie/scripts/Lake_Erie_Broadcast_Script.doc.

    SCRIPT for Lake Erie Coastal Ohio, 4-14-06

    ``Underwriting Announcement: Lake Erie: Ohio's Great Lake is made possible by the Ohio Humanities Council ... and by Lake Erie Coastal Ohio -- the Lake Erie Coastal Ohio Trail National Scenic Byway ...

    Brian Redmond: Lake Erie and really all of the Great Lakes were formed as a result of the Pleistocene glaciation. Basically, the great ice masses came, moved to the south at the end of the ice age or the end of the Pleistocene, and they carved out the basins of the lake.

    Charles Herdendorf: The most recent glacier is called the Wisconsinan, because that's where ... the glacial till was first identified. And that's the one that we see most of the evidence of here in Ohio. The Wisconsonin Glacier reached its maximum extent about 18,000 years ago. And it reached down to about the Cincinnati region.

    Narrator: The ice carved through the Great Lakes region digging deep into eastern Ohio. But when it reached the Lake Erie Islands the glacier struck limestone and dolomite deposits and merely scraped along the surface. It flattened the landscape of western Ohio and left the exposed bedrock of Kelleys Island scoured and grooved.

    Brian Redmond: And then as the glaciers receded, melted back to the north, the melt waters basically filled the lake basins and drained these grooves and depressions that the glaciers had carved out, so over the course of the end of the Pleistocene you have different shapes and depths to the great lakes including Lake Erie. And many times much higher than it is today, much more inland, and then a few times at the end of the Pleistocene, much more shallow than it is today.

    Narrator: One of those early glacial lakes covered most of northwest Ohio The water compressed the land and left behind sediment from the lake bottom.

    Charles Herdendorf: When the glacier moved off that area, it left then a very flat poorly drained area that became the Black Swamp and was a great hindrance of course to transport and to early settlement.

    Brian Redmond: Yeah, there are a lot of really obvious landmarks today in northern Ohio that mark where the different lake levels were. And most of these are what we call glacial beach ridges. They are ridges of sand and gravel that run kind of parallel to the current lakeshore, from Toledo all the way out to Conneaut near the Pennsylvania border and beyond.

    Charles Herdendorf: The beach ridges were sandy, that means they were well drained, and they formed the very first roads then for the pioneers coming in. And so these became very important for the early development and they still remain today as some of our major arteries, east-west arteries.

    Jeff Reutter: Lake Erie is divided into three basins, it's the southernmost, the shallowest, the warmest of the great lakes. Our Western Basin, the area west of Sandusky has an average depth of only 24 feet.

    Herdendorf: The central basin extends from that point near Sandusky, all the way to Erie, Pennsylvania.

    Hageman: the Central Basin has an average depth of about 60 feet. It has pretty much a flat bathtub shape to it. And then the Eastern basin is the deepest part of the lake, averaging about 80 feet and having some places over 210 feet.

    Jeff Reutter: Sounds deep compared to reservoirs in Ohio, but the other Great Lakes are all in excess of 750 feet deep. Lake Superior is 1,333 feet deep, we're really very different than the other lakes.

    Brian Redmond: We can trace the presence of humans in this region, near Lake Erie, through archeological research back to about 11,000 years ago.

    Larry Nelson: The earliest inhabitants of this area are Paleo-Indians, who are Ohio's first residents. And we know that they are here in the shadows of the glaciers that were here at the end of the last ice age.

    Brian Redmond: Some people estimate that there were no more than 500 people in Ohio at that time, living along the lake shore and into the interior as well and along the rivers that were just forming at the end of the ice age.

    Narrator: The Paleo-Indians were followed by three other periods of lakeshore habitation -- the Archaic, Woodland and Late Prehistoric. The Archaic lived in northern Ohio as the mammoth, mastodon and other ice age creatures began to disappear. Next came the Woodland People.

    Brian Redmond: This is probably one of the best known pre-historic stages to most Ohioans, because this is the time of the mound building groups, most of which lived in southern Ohio. Cultures that we call the Adena, or the Hopewell, but those woodland people also lived in northern Ohio. And along the Lake Erie shore, we have evidence of mound building as well. But those are found at places on points that stick out into the lake and near the mouths of the rivers that run into Lake Erie.

    Narrator: The Woodland people were followed by the Late Prehistoric stage. They migrated out of Ohio around 1650 ... By the late 1600s, the impact of the European fur trade started a new migration into the Lake Erie region.

    Don Rettig: Because of the popularity of these furs and skins, the whole area of New York, became depleted with beaver skins. So the Iroquois began to expand their search for these very valuable furs, and ended up coming down south and west into the Ohio country and particularly along the southern shores of Lake Erie.

    Randy Buchman: The Iroquois start doing that by aggression, thus you get into the Beaver Wars. So this then became basically, the battleground. And because of that, they did not perceive this area as a place for permanent settlement. They would come in they would travel through, and those wars lasted almost 100 years.

    Brian Redmond: We know that by about the early 1700s, other Native American groups came into Ohio after it had been abandoned. And these were groups like the Ottawa, and the Wyandotte

    Larry Nelson: White settlers are moving into this region for the first time and Indians are beginning to move back into the region for the first time. It begins a nearly 60 year period of warfare between Indians and whites.

    Narrator: The French and Indian War pitted old world adversaries against each other in the new world And Native Americans decide for the first time, to take part in a foreign war on their land

    Don Rettig: Native peoples would align themselves with a particular group like the French, only to find themselves basically abandoned by an ally, after their ally lost. As the French did during the French & Indian War, as the British later did.

    Larry Nelson: The treaty that ends the American Revolution, the 1783 Treaty of Paris, cedes what is now Ohio to the United States, and as a result, Indians who live here lose virtually all their territory.

    G. Michael Pratt: The British and the Americans meet separately and draw the US Canadian boundary through the Great Lakes, where it is right now. And the Native Americans find that all of the land that they thought they had been promised by the British at the end of the War, that is all the lands north of the Ohio River, are now ceded away by the British to the Americans.

    Larry Nelson: And the Indians are astounded when they learn that. They had never lost a battle on Ohio soil, had not been a part of the negotiations that led to the treaty and are simply amazed to find out that they've lost not only the war, but their homes as well.

    G. Michael Pratt: And this sets off then all the wars that take place in the 1790s as the Native Americans try to defend land that they believe should still be rightfully theirs down to the Ohio River. The Americans, standing on the treaty that they made with the British, fail to comprehend the Indian claims of ownership, deny the Indian claims of ownership, try to buy it back and then decide, militarily that they're going to take it.

    Narrator: After two defeats at the hands of an Indian Confederation Army led by the Miami Chief Little Turtle President Washington sent General Anthony Wayne into northern Ohio for the climactic Battle of Fallen Timbers.

    Don Rettig: He came up through Ohio, built forts along the way, and ended up meeting and engaging the native confederation in between the present day towns of Waterville and Maumee.

    Larry Nelson: The battle lasts only a short time. As a matter of fact it lasts such a short time, that Anthony Wayne is convinced that he has only gone through a preliminary skirmish and halts his army before following up his victory, convinced that he's being lured into a trap. But the battle was actually over with enormous consequences for the future history of the United States.

    Narrator: The Native Confederacy signed the Treaty of Greenville, which relinquished their claim to most of Ohio, except for designated areas on the western end of Lake Erie ...

    Narrator: Ohio became the first state formed from the Northwest Territory in 1803. But much of the Lake Erie shoreline remained an unsettled wilderness because of the continuing tensions between the British, Indians and Americans It culminated in the War of 1812. The British Navy's presence on the Great Lakes, allowed the rapid movement of troops and supplies and led to early victories at Forts Detroit, Dearborn and Mackinac. American General William Henry Harrison had access to more men but couldn't move or supply them as quickly.

    Larry Nelson: Harrison advances to the rapids of the Maumee River, where he begins to build Fort Meigs, a large and imposing facility that is intended as a supply depot in which he can accumulate the men and supplies necessary for him to recoup his army and then carry the war to Canada.

    Narrator: The British laid siege to the outpost in May of 1813, but the Americans held the fort. They attacked the American garrison again unsuccessfully in July after their canons were commandeered by the British Navy for use at the forthcoming Battle of Lake Erie. After attempting to lure the Americans out of the fort, the British and their allies withdrew.

    Larry Nelson: The British, who had taken up the attack against Fort Meigs, sail down the Maumee, they sail over to the Huron River and eventually attack Ft. Stephenson in Lower Sandusky, where present day Fremont is, and that attack is repelled by George Croghan. That attack marks the last hostile invasion of Ohio until Morgan's Raid in the Civil War.

    Narration: Despite their defeats at Fort Meigs and Fort Stephenson, the British maintained a commanding naval presence on Lake Erie.

    Walter Rybka: They had a base at Ft. Malden which was at Amherstburg, across the river from Detroit.

    Walter Rybka: They were in a very disadvantageous position though, because they were at the end of a very long supply line, which was easily interdicted. The American industry was miniscule by British standards but it was much closer to the front.

    Narrator: The Secretary of the Navy ordered construction of an American fleet in Erie, Pennsylvania under the command of Oliver Hazard Perry ...

    Narrator: When Perry and the American fleet began disrupting British supply lines, it set up a crucial battle for control of Lake Erie.

    Walter Rybka: The battle was fought about 10 miles west of Put-In-Bay, Ohio. The British had six vessels under command of Robert Harriet Barclay. The Americans had 9 vessels under the command of Oliver Hazard Perry.

    Sue Judis: Perry needed to get in close range to the British fleet. The British with their long guns could shoot farther, so as Perry was approaching the British line, they started to fire on Perry and his flagship the Lawrence.

    Narrator: The Lawrence was named to honor the memory of James Lawrence, captain the USS Chesapeake, who was killed in battle off Boston Harbor. Lawrence's last words to his crew were Don't Give up the Ship! a motto that Oliver Perry adopted for his battle flag.

    As Perry pressed the attack in the Lawrence, his other Brig the Niagara held back Perry's ship was slowly battered to pieces by the British fleet After his guns were disabled and most of his men killed or wounded, the Brig Niagara finally joined the battle. Perry lowered his battle flag, boarded a lifeboat and under heavy enemy fire, transferred his command to the Niagara.

    Walter Rybka: Perry's transfer is one of the best known episodes in US Naval history. His motto flag was don't give up the ship! In actuality the only way to win the battle was to give up the ship and go to the next one. The real motto was Don't give up!

    Narrator: Perry led the crew of the Niagara to victory, and for the first time in naval history captured an entire British fleet. At the conclusion of the battle, Perry, wrote General Harrison, "We have met the enemy and they are ours, two ships, two brigs, one schooner and one sloop. Yours, with great respect and esteem, O.H. Perry."

    Walter Rybka: The Battle of Lake Erie forced the abandonment of the British position at Detroit, it broke the Indian alliance with the British, and allowed us to regain the Michigan territory that essentially had been lost at the beginning of the war ...

    Narrator: The Treaty of Ghent ended the war in 1815. At the centennial anniversary of the Battle, work began on Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial on South Bass Island in remembrance of the Battle of Lake Erie and to celebrate the lasting peace between Canada and the United States ...''

    HISTORICAL SKETCH OF AVON, OHIO, TO 1974

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