Lyme and Biowarfare

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Note from [4-20-01]:

URL for the U.S. Public Health Service [USPHS] Commissioned Corps:

Check out this URL for info on the USPHS physician corp (a MILITARY website). The USPHS Commissioned Corps is specifically designed for officers to hold DUAL APPOINTMENTS IN FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES. This includes the DOD [Department of Defense], CDC [Center for Disease Control], NIH [National Institutes of Health], etc.

In reading what I've posted below, also keep in mind that ANTONIA NOVELLO, MD of the New York Department of Health (of which the NY OPMC [Office of Professional Medical Conduct] is a division [and in 2000 and 2001 is conducting `star chamber' trials of Dr. Burrascano and Dr. Horowitz]) is a former U.S. SURGEON GENERAL.

The U.S. Surgeon General is the highest ranking officer of the USPHS Commissioned Corps and is chief of the corps.

Upon information and belief, more likely than not, Antonia Novello, MD is presently on active duty military, at the same time she holds the appointment as Director of the New York State Department of Health [DOH]. It might be interesting to look at the NY DOH website and see if she is pictured in military uniform.

Interesting facts:

(1) Steere lists his years as a CDC EIS [Epidemic Intelligence Service] officer as "military experience" on his CV [resume] but there is no mention of whether this is Army, Navy, Air Force, etc. either on the CV or in his deposition. An educated guess would be that he was a USPHS officer in the Commissioned Corps. Could Steere still be active duty USPHS or in the USPHS Reserves?

(2) Gubler is likely active duty USPHS in his post at the CDC. "American Men and Women in Science," a multi-volume reference publication, lists Gubler as holding positions in the U.S. Navy as "USPHS" prior to his appointment at the CDC. Because the USPHS Commissioned Corps is designed for dual appointments in federal agencies, it is extremely likely that Gubler is active duty.

(3) The 1990 version of the AMA [American Medical Association] Physician Directory lists Klempner as "USPHS" with a business address of New England Medical Center (NEMC). The directory lists him as doing research at NEMC.

Is it possible that being employed under an NIH grant awarded to a private university sufficient connection to a federal agency to allow one to be active duty USPHS? Subsequent volumes do not mention any concurrent appointments Klempner has with the USPHS.

Prior to being at NEMC, Klempner also completed his internal medicine residency at a Naval Hospital. This would be unusual unless he held a military appointment.

(4) Michael Ascher, MD PhD is also listed in the 1995-96 edition of "American Men and Women of Science" as holding a concurrent position as "USPHS" while employed full-time by the California DHS.

Ascher is an important figure in the California DHS and is one of the main players orchestrating the usual propaganda about Lyme disease, the undercounting of cases, and likely what we have to look forward to -- the prosecution of physicians (there are glimmers of this on the horizon).

Ascher moves in the same circles as Gubler and Dennis and is a major figure in the California DHS [Department of Health Services]. I don't know if the current volume of "American Men and Women of Science" describes Ascher as presently holding a concurrent appointment with the USPHS, however, it is well known among employees at the California DHS that Ascher is on active duty military at the same time holding his appointment within the California DHS. Apparently he leaves several times a year to go to do required military training types of activities.

Prior to coming to the California DHS 11-12 years ago, Ascher was employed at Fort Detrick.

"American Men & Women of Science" describes his appointment at Fort Detrick as through the "USPHS." Ascher also bragged to me about working at Fort Detrick when I met him at a bioterrorism conference put on by the Santa Clara County Health Dept/DHS/CDC.

Ascher is also the point person for organizing the bioterrorism project for the California DHS. There is new money flowing into California DHS from the DOD for bioterrorism and entire new division devoted to "bioterrorism" has been opened at DHS.

Michael S. Ascher, MD is one of the individuals within the California Dept of Health Services (DHS) involved in orchestrating DHS's atrocious policies regarding Lyme disease. Upon information and belief, Ascher is also the point person for the bioterrorism program within DHS that is reportedly being funded by the DOD.

Assistant Secretary of Health and Human Servicess (HHS), Dr. Margaret Hamburg, states in the article below: "The danger is we don't want public health identified with the CIA and FBI activities . . . Particularly in terms of global infectious disease surveillance. We in public health need to have public trust and confidence - it's crucially important. We have to find the right balance."

What is Hamburg saying here? That we don't want the CIA and FBI to be KNOWN to be involved in public health, implying that they are already positioned within our public health system ? -- or is she saying that we don't want them involved and that civilian medicine and civilian public health employees should be and will be undertaking this work?

ARTICLE from NEWSDAY, 2-21-99, page A04, By Laurie Garrett, STAFF CORRESPONDENT

``Wake-Up Call On Germ Warfare

U.S. and Canada fail mock attack

Washington, D.C. - Public health infrastructures in the United States and Canada would, in their current states, be devastated by a "high-impact" bioterrorism event in which an attacker uses modern germ technology, officials said last week.

A telltale scenario - role-played by public health experts using smallpox as the biological agent involved and epidemic response plans similar to those in many American cities - left 15,000 people dead over two months and 80 million dead within a year, primarily due to insufficient global vaccine supplies ...

"We have a lot of work to do . . ," said Dr. Margaret Hamburg, an assistant HHS secretary. "Having been the health commissioner of New York City during the World Trade Center bombing, I have no doubt that terrorism is a reality . . . I have no doubt that if we want to be responsible we have to take this seriously." ...

Hamburg's office is trying to ... forge stronger links between public health and law enforcement agencies and encourage research and development of a national stockpile of appropriate vaccines and antibiotics.

"The danger is we don't want public health identified with the CIA and FBI activities," Hamburg continued. "Particularly in terms of global infectious disease surveillance ..." ''

Question: how many EIS officers are employed through the USPHS? While there is a physician corp, there are also positions for vets, nurses, PAs, etc. Or could employment as an EIS officer entail an automatic appointment with the USPHS?

There is MILITARY RANK among the individuals holding USPHS appointments. For example, what is the relationship between GUBLER and ANTONIA NOVELLO, MD with respect to MILITARY RANK??? Now that's a mind bender. What are the implications for what is going on at the NY OPMC?

The relationship of military rank may also explain why Steere answers to Gubler. For example, you could hypothesize that Steere is in the USPHS Reserves and Gubler is active duty and of senior rank in the USPHS.

Prior to his appointment at the CDC, Gubler has held directorships of Navy research laboratories while active duty USPHS. You'd think that would make him fairly high rank in relationship to any of these other guys (Klempner, Ascher).

I am belaboring this because obviously this might define what gets done vis a vis Lyme disease with these core players ---- at the same time, all we see and assume is that these are just civilians working in civilian public health agencies or private universities committing a variety of medical and scientific frauds and have certain apparent conflicts of interest, etc. That may be all that meets the eye -- the other relationships being difficult or impossible to discern.

Military rank could also define the relationship between Gubler and other individuals with links to the USPHS at the fifty state public health departments, some of whom, like Michael Ascher, MD PhD are active duty. Some could be in the USPHS Reserves.

Another way to also look at the financial conflicts of interest that have been documented is to consider how war is being redefined as biological in nature.

Just as we had the military industrial complex and all its graft when war was defined as nuclear and tanks and missiles, etc. -- what we are stumbling over may simply be what is simply the new "military biotech complex." We know from the anthrax vaccine controversy and the military websites that the DOD is totally smitten with vaccines.


Subject: Duane J. Gubler, Capt. US Public Health Service

... I do believe the EIS connection is critical to why some of the core favorite sons are so integrated into what is going on. And, I know the CDC rapidly pulled the World Health Organization into a team with their favorites.

... When the California International Conference took place, there was a closed meeting of the WHO (World Health Organization) members dealing with Lyme Disease and other issues.

In a message dated 5-3-01, writes:

Health Watch

40th Navy Occupational Health and Preventive Medicine Workshop

By Karen Murphy

``NORFOLK, Va. -- The 40th Navy Occupational Health and Preventive Medicine Workshop will be presented by the Navy Environmental Health Center (NEHC) in Norfolk, Va., from January 28 to February 4, 2000. The theme for this year's workshop is "Force Health Protection: Prepare and Protect." ...

Duane J. Gubler, Capt. US Public Health Service, will deliver the Woodward Lecture ... ''

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Note from [4-20-01], continued:

I find the article attached below of interest in light of discussion that took place at a recent California LDAC (Lyme Disease Advisory Committee) meeting where DHS staff rebuffed requests by committee members for original data related to geographic locations of tick positivity.

One DHS staff member ... Vicki Kramer, PhD, a "medical entomologist" as she described herself, essentially admitted that DHS cannot withhold the data, but you were left with the impression that it certainly will not get into the public realm without a skirmish of some degree.

I attended the meeting without invitation believing that these meetings must be OPEN MEETINGS as mandated under [California] state open government laws.

I was tersely told by the above Vicki Kramer, PhD, that these meetings are CLOSED TO THE PUBLIC!!! Even though these do not have anything to do with the internal workings of the agency and they are addressing matters of public policy. Is this America? I pinch myself at the surreal nature of the continuing deceptions around this disease and government secrecy.

Vicki Kramer, PhD even went so far as to try to claim -- A BLATANT LIE -- that the committee members themselves had already voted and determined that the meetings were to be CLOSED TO THE PUBLIC.

In subsequent conversation, what came out was that someone at DHS had gone to the trouble of obtaining internal legal consultation for a legal opinion stating the meetings, by law, are closed to the public!!!

DHS foresaw the question coming up and made a DELIBERATE predetermination to cut off public access to the meetings! It is also known that the minutes written by DHS do not reflect the tone and content of the meetings deliberations. The Minutes are the only material made available to the public by DHS.

Dr. Kramer and Bob Lane, PhD (another person clearly in the CDC/Steere camp), then informed the committee that a "vote" would be taken after "confidential" discussion about whether the committee should be open or closed. I was told that I must leave the room for this "confidential" discussion.

Now, I must point out that these matters are subject to public LAW --- not the whim of a vote by committee members. The vote was illegal. The meetings are either closed or open BY LAW. A committee cannot subvert the law in any way, either voting to make an open meeting closed when by law it must be closed, or vice versa.

Dr. Kramer said I was being allowed to attend the meeting because I had "come such a distance" (120 miles), but the clear message was that I should never return. The hostility from DHS staff, including Bob Lane, PhD (also a member of the ALDF [American Lyme Disease Foundation] Board) was palpable.

It is extremely unlikely that the legislators who sponsored the bill mandating the Lyme Disease Advisory Committee [LDAC] foresaw that these meetings would be closed to the public.

[Below is] an article about a lawsuit in Illinois where the state public health department would not release data about neuroblastoma. An Illinois court ruled against the health department.

One interesting aspect of my field trip to the California DHS office was observing the high degree of security in the building. It is very odd for what you'd think is just an agency dealing with public health matters.

The employee cafeteria was LOCKED FROM THE INSIDE so that you couldn't get out without either an internal pass card (for employees of that DHS office only) or being escorted out by someone with a key card.

The DHS staffer who took us to the cafeteria for food clearly waited for all of us to escort us back. There were also signs in the windows of some offices with the words: "ACCESS RESTRICTED." You'd think this was Fort Knox.

While DHS may argue that this level of security is warranted because their offices contain health records --- this is not a believable rationale. The argument I hear is that they are protecting patient privacy.

Like many in these discussion groups, I've worked at many different medical centers. There is no greater concentration of individual health care records than at a hospital --- but you certainly we never see this level of security at a hospital.

What is going on in these buildings? Why isn't important information being made publicly available?

I also the saw the same thing when visiting the Massachusetts Dept of Public Health in Boston -- major security --- seemed even tighter than at the DHS office in Sacramento.

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Sounds like Illinois is no friendlier to the public than these other state public health agencies, either. I find this so odd.

REPORT from The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press

ILLINOIS Freedom of Information, 4-25-01

Open records law exemption does not cover health statistics: A state appeals court ruling allows a newspaper to continue its investigation of cancer rates because the public benefit of knowing the information outweighs the personal privacy concerns.

An Illinois appellate court has determined that a newspaper is entitled to statistical data from the state's cancer registry because releasing the information does not invade the patient's privacy.

The state Department of Health refused to release the data in 1997 when the Southern Illinoisan wanted to investigate the prevalence of neuroblastoma, a rare childhood cancer, since 1985. For each case, the newspaper requested the type of cancer, the zip code of the patient and the date of diagnosis.

The newspaper wanted this information to determine if "there are clusters of neuroblastoma in Southern Illinois, similar to the cluster in Taylorville," a small town about 25 miles southeast of the state capital Springfield.

The decision by the court of appeals on March 28 [2001] confirmed an early ruling by a circuit court ordering the department to produce the statistical data for the newspaper. The circuit court, however, instructed the newspaper not to use the information to "attempt to identify or contact cancer patients."

The court of appeals said the data did not meet an exemption in the state open records law that keeps confidential records that would "constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy."

In this case, the court said the privacy interest was minimal and that the release of the statistics for the newspaper investigation presented a great public benefit.

Finally, the appeals court said, the department had to release the records because the newspaper could not obtain them from an alternate source.

One claim by the department caused the court to pause. An affidavit filed by an expert claimed that persons could be identified from the statistical information, even though the information did not contain names or addresses.

The court noted that information is exempt from the open records law if it is prohibited from release under other state or federal law.

Because the law that enacted the cancer registry prohibits release of "facts that tends to lead to the identity" of patients, the court remanded the case back to the lower court to determine if the statistical information could be used to identify individuals.

(Southern Illinoisan v. Department of Public Health; Media Counsel: Donald M. Craven, Craven & Thornton, Springfield, Ill.)

The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press

See Morning Journal MS series by Sarah Fenske

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Curtis Fritz, DVM [Doctor of Veterinary Medicine] is one of the new members of the California DHS team causing problems for Lyme disease patients in California.

Upon information and belief, Curtis Fritz, DVM was one of the individuals who went into a doctor's office in California -- the doctor treating many cases of Lyme disease --- and pulling records of this doctor, later "determined" that NONE of these patients had Lyme disease. Sound familiar???

What is so remarkable is that Fritz is also clearly part of the circle of the people who are causing so much trouble for Lyme patients on the East coast. Note that Curtis Fritz publishes with Gubler, Dennis, Nowakowski, Wormser, and Fish.

There's also a paper that he published with CJ Peters, another big biowarfare type. Note that besides Lyme disease and erlichiosis, Curtiz Fritz has published on the topics of plague, hantavirus and dengue --- ALL topics of great interest to biowarfare types.

Our officials continue to deny that these tick borne diseases are of any consequence regarding biowarfare -- either of offensive or defensive interest to the U.S. I am skeptical, given the associations here.

Note that David Dennis, MD also sits on the Civilian Biodefense Committee at Johns Hopkins, as does Michael Ascher, MD PhD of the California DHS. This is the same committee that has published the recent series of articles in the Journal of the American Medical Association on organisms of relevance as biowarfare agents.

Note that Curtis Fritz is also a former EIS officer, as are Barbour and Steere. On the CDC's own webpage for the EIS (Epidemic Intelligence Service), it states that the EIS was founded with the intent that it's focus be on biowarfare issues and "man-made epidemics."

Below are the citations to Fritz's publications.

1: Young JC, Hansen GR, Graves TK, Deasy MP, Humphreys JG, Fritz CL, Gorham KL, Khan AS, Ksiazek TG, Metzger KB, Peters CJ.

The incubation period of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Jun;62(6):714-7. PMID: 11304061 [PubMed - in process]

2: Gage KL, Dennis DT, Orloski KA, Ettestad P, Brown TL, Reynolds PJ, Pape WJ, Fritz CL, Carter LG, Stein JD.

Cases of cat-associated human plague in the Western US, 1977-1998. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Jun;30(6):893-900. Review. PMID: 10852811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Rodriguez-Lainz A, Fritz CL, McKenna WR.

Animal and human health risks associated with Africanized honeybees. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999 Dec 15;215(12):1799-804. Review. No abstract available. PMID: 10613211 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Kitsutani PT, Denton RW, Fritz CL, Murray RA, Todd RL, Pape WJ, Wyatt Frampton J, Young JC, Khan AS, Peters CJ, Ksiazek TG.

Acute Sin Nombre hantavirus infection without pulmonary syndrome, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 Sep-Oct;5(5):701-5. PMID: 10511527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Campbell GL, Fritz CL, Fish D, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Wormser GP.

Estimation of the incidence of Lyme disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1998 Nov 15;148(10):1018-26. PMID: 9829875 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Savage HM, Fritz CL, Rutstein D, Yolwa A, Vorndam V, Gubler DJ.

Epidemic of dengue-4 virus in Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia, and implication of Aedes hensilli as an epidemic vector. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 Apr;58(4):519-24. PMID: 9574802 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: Fritz CL, Glaser CA.

Ehrlichiosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1998 Mar;12(1):123-36. Review. PMID: 9494834 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Madon MB, Hitchcock JC, Davis RM, Myers CM, Smith CR, Fritz CL, Emery KW, O'Rullian W.

An overview of plague in the United States and a report of investigations of two human cases in Kern county, California, 1995. J Vector Ecol. 1997 Jun;22(1):77-82. PMID: 9221742 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Fritz CL, Kjemtrup AM, Conrad PA, Flores GR, Campbell GL, Schriefer ME, Gallo D, Vugia DJ.

Seroepidemiology of emerging tickborne infectious diseases in a Northern California community. J Infect Dis. 1997 Jun;175(6):1432-9. PMID: 9180183 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Fritz CL, Farver TB, Kass PH, Hart LA.

Correlation among three psychological scales used in research of caregivers for patients with Alzheimer's disease. Psychol Rep. 1997 Feb;80(1):67-80. PMID: 9122354 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Fritz CL, Farver TB, Hart LA, Kass PH.

Companion animals and the psychological health of Alzheimer patients' caregivers. Psychol Rep. 1996 Apr;78(2):467-81. PMID: 9148303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: Fritz CL, Dennis DT, Tipple MA, Campbell GL, McCance CR, Gubler DJ.

Surveillance for pneumonic plague in the United States during an international emergency: a model for control of imported emerging diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996 Jan-Mar;2(1):30-6. PMID: 8964057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Fritz CL, Farver TB, Kass PH, Hart LA.

Association with companion animals and the expression of noncognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's patients. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1995 Jul;183(7):459-63. PMID: 7623018 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Fritz CL.

Semantics of euthanasia. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1994 Aug 15;205(4):536-7. No abstract available. PMID: 7961084 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Note from

This letter came from the LDF website. They suggest doing it to prevent fishing expeditions by medical boards. ... maybe it will stop or slow down the process. Send certified mail, return receipt requested ...

Here's the letter:


Dear [Name of doctor]:

I am generally familiar with the current Lyme disease controversy involving efforts of some government agencies to interfere in an individual doctor's treatment decisions.

I am also familiar with the controversy surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme and other tick-borne disorders.

You and I have fully discussed the risks and benefits of the course of action that we have taken in my diagnosis and care plan and we have both agreed to that course of action.

I also want to let you know that I specifically instruct that you are not authorized to release any of my medical records in your possession to any government agency or medical licensing board or to any person representing or acting on behalf of these groups.

If you receive any request or demand for my medical records from any of these groups, please let me know promptly.

Also, will you please place this letter in my medical records file.



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Note from

Testimony given at hearings conducted by South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Committee regarding the apartheid regime's biowarfare program (i.e., "Project Coast") describes the South African program as "second only to Russian chemical and biological warfare capabilities" and that one of the most impressive aspects was the "research done in changing the moods of people by using brain-altering equipment."

This is the second reference I have found that describes the search for mood altering agents (for example, agents that would induce passive states in a crowd of militants) as a focus for biowarfare research in South Africa.

One of the most striking aspects of borreliosis in humans here in the United States is its neuropsychiatric effects. While it may induce abnormal states of rage and irritability, one of its most frequent effects is inducing states of extreme fatigue and arguably, apathy.

In one of the books I read on the history of the U.S. biowarfare program, U.S. scientists were interested in developing a biological agent that had effects on neurotransmitters.

Producing a microbiological agent, for example, that caused persistent infection that also induced a chronic derangement at the site of neurotransmitter receptors - say by producing a neurotoxin or protein that blocked a neuroreceptor site -- that would fit the bill as far as what they were looking to develop.

Of note, the effects of borreliosis in the human population might be a model for something like that. It is also interesting as to how the CDC/Steere people have tried to mischaracterize human borreliosis as an arthritic disease. In fact, its most pronounced effects are on the human nervous system, in particular, its neuropsychiatric effects.

For anyone who is interested, there is an extensive collection of documents at the website for the Truth and Reconciliation Committee found at

This report is of interest in that the South African biowarfare program was supposedly set up with the help of individuals involved in the U.S. biowarfare program. The former South African program is reported to parallel the structure of the U.S. program.

See Article

NEWS ARTICLE from The South African Press Association, 6-6-98


JOHANNESBURG -- South Africa's truth body will on Monday attempt to lift the lid on apartheid's secret laboratories, when the former government's chemical and biological warfare effort comes under the microscope ...

In the spotlight are experiments carried out on humans and animals and the involvement of the apartheid state in the development of chemical and biological warfare between 1981 and 1994.

The TRC will also try to unearth more information about a secret military programme to develop apartheid's chemical and biological arsenal, codenamed "Project Coast".

Leaders of the apartheid regime have steadfastly denied its existence.

However, the arrest of Dr Wouter Basson, a 47-year-old ... [physician and cardiologist]. who headed the South African army's Seventh Medical Battalion, has led to the discovery of disturbing official documents, such as detailed notes on formulae for deadly chemicals listed by the International Chemical Weapons Convention.

Basson, the mastermind of Project Coast, was arrested in January 1997 for narcotics dealing in collaboration with a private laboratory. The deals were undertaken through a front company created by apartheid-era special services.

Having been arrested and charged, Basson, a researcher who is known to secret services across the world for alleged trafficking in military equipment, acknowledged that his work was designed to "cause fear" and diminish the fighting capacity of "the enemy".

According to investigations carried out by the South African press, lethal chemical substances were tried out on humans. Medicines known to cause cardiac problems were tested on the San, southern Africa's last indigenous people.

A 1992 report into the affair commissioned by then-president F.W. de Klerk acknowledged that the Seventh Medical Battalion was involved in making and using chemical substances.

It alleged that the battalion supplied poisons to assassins from army hit squads and was involved in a chemical bomb attack on government troops in Mozambique.

The report was followed by a purge of the army: Basson and 23 other senior officers were forced to take early retirement in 1993.

The now ruling African National Congress (ANC) has been heavily criticised for protecting Basson by subsequently giving him a job in a military hospital.

The party has said it was "in the national interest" to keep Basson in its midst in order to "maintain control over his activities and retain his specialist knowledge. ''

NEWS ARTICLE from The South African Press Association, 6-12-98

See Article


CAPE TOWN -- A key figure in the former government's chemical and biological weapons programme, Dr Wouter Basson, will be called to testify before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's inquiry into the programme ...

Basson and the former managing director of the South Africa Defence Force's Delta G front company, Dr Phillip Myburgh, were reluctant to testify on the grounds that it would prejudice their forthcoming trial in which they face an array of charges.

Jaap Cilliers, who is representing Basson and Myburgh, has indicated that he intends taking the matter to the High Court for a review of the ruling forcing his clients to testify before the TRC ...

Basson faces ten charges ranging from instigation to murder to the production and possession of large quantities of the drugs Mandrax and Ecstasy ... ''

NEWS ARTICLE from The South African Press Association, 12-1-99

See Article


During cross-examination, National Intelligence Agency deputy director-general Mike Kennedy confirmed that such an indemnity offer had been made to Basson.

Kennedy told the court that top-secret documents found in trunks belonging to Basson should not be made public as they could pose a danger to society.

The information contained in the documents should be kept secret from criminal and terrorist elements, he said. "There have already been so many cases of espionage in the country by people trying to get hold of this sort of information."

Kennedy testified that he had investigated a number of cases in the 1980s of international espionage on South Africa's chemical and biological warfare programme, Project Coast. He confirmed that some of the documents had been made public during TRC hearings, even though they were supposed to have been kept secret ...

Kennedy testified that he had been present during a briefing Basson gave on Project Coast to British and United States experts, and said they had been amazed at the sophistication of the programme They had described it as second only to Russian chemical and biological warfare capabilities, he said ... ''

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``Government investigating Lyme conflicts

[GAO] probe focuses on 3 agencies

The investigative arm of Congress is expected to complete a report later this month outlining potential conflicts of interest at government agencies that shaped the diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease.

The General Accounting Office probe -- centering on the National Institutes of Health [NIH], the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], and the Food and Drug Administration [FDA] -- reflects growing concern that basic research conducted by government and academic institutions is increasingly influenced by a cash-rich pharmaceutical industry.

"We're looking at federal activities and procedures," said Marcia Crosse, the GAO's assistant director for public health. "As part of that, we're examining financial conflicts of interest among agency employees and advisers."

Significantly, THE PROBE WILL BE THE FIRST TO ADDRESS CRITICISM THAT FEDERAL AGENCIES FAILED TO DEVOTE SUFFICIENT RESOURCES TO MANAGE THE DISEASE, which infects 16,000 people each year. Whether Congress will follow it up with legislation remains to be seen.

Among the issues reviewed by the GAO have been CDC and NIH research spending, the types of grants issued and reviewed by the NIH, and whether federal officials had ties to doctors at state levels, according to congressional sources ...

Patents sought for diagnosing Lyme disease [are being investigated]. One example involved a 1992 patent application filed jointly by the CDC and SmithKline, which Glaxo recently purchased.

Two years after the filing, the CDC issued a public health notice recommending doctors rely on two of the same diagnostic markers listed in the patent, but never disclosed the agency stood to gain if the patent eventually was licensed and royalties were paid ...

The patent, which resulted from a cooperative research agreement between the CDC and SmithKline, listed several diagnostic markers, or bands,that doctors might use to identify the rashes characterizing Lyme disease. In 1993, an international application was filed.

During that period, scientists were trying to better understand Lyme disease in the hopes of finding a workable treatment. Toward that end, a conference was held in Dearborn, Mich., in October 1994 to identify diagnostic markers to be used by the medical community.

As it turned out, Barbara Johnson, a CDC employee who also was listed as an inventor on the patent, was a member of the conference planning committee. She also was involved in setting the agenda for the meeting, according to a conference organizer ... ''

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